Academic Catalog

2019-2020 Undergraduate Academic Catalog

Biology

App View

Majors

Biology Major

Minors

Biology Minor

Emphasis

Environmental Chemistry Emphasis

Freshwater Resources Emphasis

Wildlife Biology Emphasis

Concentrations

Social Sciences for Health Professionals Concentration

Pre-Professional Programs

Dentistry

Medicine

Veterinary Medicine

Teacher Licensure

Endorsement in Biology (6-12)

The Department of Biology is one of Bridgewater’s largest. The department, located in the McKinney Center of Science and Mathematics, offers introductory and advanced courses to provide students with a strong foundation. The rapid expansion of the biological sciences assures bright futures for well-prepared biologists. All students, regardless of major, may take a course in biolog y as the topics in ecology, cell and molecular biology will only continue to have greater impact on individuals and society.
 
The biology major has three tracks—in general biology, ecology and pre-health sciences—that easily interchange to allow students maximum preparation and flexibility. A minor in biology is recommended for students who want to pair experiences in life science while pursuing another major. The concentration in social sciences for health professionals prepares students for the complex social interactions in all healthcare fields today. In addition, the department offers emphases that are sets of courses in focused areas—wildlife biology, freshwater resources and environmental chemistry—along with internships, study abroad, field work, summer research opportunities and a chance to take classes at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute. The environmental science major is closely tied to studies in biology and students may double major. In addition, qualified students may apply to dual degree programs in clinical laboratory sciences, physical therapy and veterinary medicine.
 
Students majoring in biology find employment directly after graduation as life science teachers, laboratory technicians, health professionals, pharmaceutical salespersons, and in environmental professions including the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. The major also prepares students for post-bachelor study. With graduate or professional degrees, Bridgewater alumni go on to successful careers as physicians, veterinarians, dentists, foresters, wildlife biologists, research scientists and genetic counselors.

Biology Major

Degree Type Offered: B.S. Major

Consists of a minimum of 43 credit hours of courses in biology, chemistry and mathematics. Students choose one of three tracks: General Biology, Pre-Health Sciences, or Ecology. The following core courses are required for each track, consisting of 26 credits:

BIOL-110 Principles of Biology I

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the biological sciences, covering biological chemistry, cell/tissue structure and function, genetics and microevolution. Intended for biology, health and human sciences, and environmental science majors. Three lectures and one lab per week. Corequisites: MATH-110 or MATH-118 Biology and environmental science majors should take MATH-110. Other students should consult with their advisor about which course to take. FILA general education: natural and physical sciences

BIOL-111 Principles of Biology II

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the biological sciences covering macroevolution (systematic, taxonomy, phylogenetics), ecology and biodiversity. Intended for biology and environmental science majors. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-110

BIOL-309 Genetics

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to both classical, Mendelian inheritance and molecular genetics with one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor; CHEM-161 recommended

BIOL-430 Evolution

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of the mechanisms of biological evolution including mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, nonrandom mating, the genetic structure of species populations, the origin of new species and DNA evidence regarding relationships among species and higher taxa. Prerequisites: BIOL-309, MATH-130, and senior standing; or permission of instructor

CHEM-161 General Chemistry I

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Principles of chemistry including stoichiometry, states of matter, atomic and molecular structure, chemical bonding, periodicity, and the kinetic molecular theory of gases. Three hours of lecture and one four hour lab per week. Prerequisites: MATH-110 or MATH-115 or MATH-118 FILA general education: natural and physical sciences Credit may not be received for both CHEM-125 and CHEM-161

CHEM-162 General Chemistry II

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Principles of chemistry including intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, equilibria, acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, kinetics, and solubility. Three hours of lecture and one four hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-161 or permission of instructor

MATH-130 Survey of Calculus

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Differential and integral calculus for the student who needs a working knowledge of the subject but does not plan to pursue more advanced study in mathematics. Includes theory and application of limits, derivatives, and integrals. Prerequisite: MATH-120 or satisfactory performance on placement test Credit may not be received for both MATH 130 and MATH 131

The remaining credits come from the tracks as follows—students choose one:

Track 1-General Biology

Consists of 17 to 20 credits chosen from the following:

Cell Biology/Physiology (1 course)

BIOL-311 Animal Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to animal physiology - how animals function at cellular, systems and organismal levels. Knowledge that is acquired in this course serves as an excellent foundation for future postgraduate or professional studies in animal health & management. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of scientific thinking and writing are significant components of the course. Credit may not be received for both BIOL 311 and 314 Prerequisites: BIOL-110, BIOL-111, and MATH-120

BIOL-314 Human Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the physiology of the human body including the physiology of enzymes and membranes, tissue physiology (nervous, muscular), and a detailed survey of the physiology of the major organ systems. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111; or BIOL-110 and BIOL-305 Credit may not be received for both BIOL 311 and 314

BIOL-325 Molecular Biology of the Cell

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The molecular basis of cell structure and function. Topics include the chemistry, architecture and analysis of macromolecules, overview of thermodynamics and metabolism, enzymology, genetic processes and controls, recombinant DNA technology, and cell signaling mechanisms. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and CHEM-161, or permission of instructor

BIOL/ENVR-360 Environmental Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will provide a framework for studying how animals function in their native environments at different stages of their life cycles. Its scope is animal physiology blended with environmental science: principles of physiological mechanisms are examined from the perspective of physiological adaptation in a given environmental context, including specific adaptations to environmental extremes. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of critical scientific thinking and scientific writing are significant components of the course. Prerequisites: BIOL-110 and BIOL-111, and MATH-120 (Cross-listed as ENVR-360)

Ecology (1 course)

BIOL-350 Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Analysis of the distribution and abundance of organisms, population growth and regulation, and species interactions, as well as community and ecosystem processes. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111

BIOL/ENVR-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics include antibiotic resistance; biodegradation; biodiversity; biofuels; bioremediation; extreme environments; geochemical cycles; methods for sampling; culture and analysis of environmental microorganisms; microbiology of air, water and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-401)

BIOL/ENVR-435 Freshwater Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to aquatic ecosystems (lakes, ponds, streams and wetlands). Students learn about the major chemical and physical processes that determine the function of freshwater systems. Students are introduced to the major groups of aquatic organisms (algae, vascular plants, invertebrates, fish and amphibians). Strong emphasis on the impacts that humans have on freshwater systems. The lab introduces the basic skills necessary for the study and management of fresh waters. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-435)

Organismal Biology (1 course)

BIOL-316 Ornithology: the Biology of Birds

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviors that have produced an extraordinary biodiversity of bird species. The major groups of modern birds are introduced, and their origin and ecology are examined. Students learn to recognize local species in the field and examine them in the lab using the ornithology collections. Suitable for both biology majors and non-majors. Prerequisites: BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 Offered alternate years

BIOL-320 Developmental Biology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Introduction to developmental biology with a focus on its fundamental aspects: embryogenesis, growth, cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. The study of theory is supplemented with hands-on observations of early development in animal embryos (salamander and/or mouse, or other animals). We also consider the impact of recent advances in developmental biology on our society by exploring the ethical, moral, and religious implications, as well as the legal issues that inevitably arise from work in this field. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and one additional BIOL course numbered 200 or above Offered alternate years

BIOL-321 Herpetology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

An introduction to the study of amphibians and reptiles. Lectures will focus on the origin and evolution of amphibians and reptiles, and on their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, anatomy, species identification, and common field techniques used to study these groups. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-322 Mammalogy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures will focus on phylogenetics, the origin and evolution of mammals and their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, species identification and common field techniques used to study mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-340 Botany

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of the plant kingdom that will include topics ranging from plant anatomy, physiology, diversity and ecology. Students interested in ecology, forestry and wildlife biology will find this course particularly useful. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-400 Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introductory survey of microbiology with an emphasis on bacteriology. The lecture component covers the structure, nutrition, metabolism, and genetics of microbes, medical microbiology, diagnostic techniques, microbial ecology, and industrial microbiology. The lab component includes biological safety, microscopy, culture techniques, media, staining, identification of unknown bacteria and an independent research project. Two lectures and two labs per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or permission of instructor; BIOL-325 recommended

BIOL-403 Pathogenic Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Exploration of major human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. Topics include host-parasite interactions, host defenses, pathogenic mechanisms, control of microorganisms, diagnosis and identification of infectious agents, antibiotic therapy, disease transmission and epidemiology. Class activities include discussion of medical case studies, literature analysis, identification of unknowns, and field trips. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-309 or permission of instructor; BIOL-325 and BIOL-400 strongly recommended

BIOL-420 Plant Taxonomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Broad survey of the diversity and classification of vascular plants. Students will learn to recognize common and important plant families as well as learn to identify local taxa. Traditional and modern methods of taxonomy and systematics are presented. Prerequisite: BIOL-111; BIOL-430 recommended Offered alternate years

BIOL/ENVR-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. Special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest, and invasive species. Lab includes basic ecology and behavior but focuses heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisites: BIOL/ENVR-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-433)

BIOL-440 Animal Behavior

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the theoretical framework and the methodology of animal behavior research. Students examine the causation, development, current function, and evolutionary history of behavior of invertebrates and vertebrates. Integrates concepts and principles from multiple disciplines to understand behaviors such as foraging and predation, mating systems, communication, parental care, social hierarchies, and territoriality. Students also review the history of the field of animal behavior and the contributions that animal behavior research can make to applied disciplines such as environmental conservation, biomedical research, and human psychology. Prerequisites: Any one of the following: BIOL-311, BIOL-314, or BIOL-350, PSY-210, or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-440)

And 2 elective BIOL courses numbered 300 or higher

Track 2-Pre-Health Sciences

Consists of 18 to 20 credits chosen from the following:

Cell Biology (1 course)

BIOL-325 Molecular Biology of the Cell

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The molecular basis of cell structure and function. Topics include the chemistry, architecture and analysis of macromolecules, overview of thermodynamics and metabolism, enzymology, genetic processes and controls, recombinant DNA technology, and cell signaling mechanisms. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and CHEM-161, or permission of instructor

Physiology (1 course)

BIOL-311 Animal Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to animal physiology - how animals function at cellular, systems and organismal levels. Knowledge that is acquired in this course serves as an excellent foundation for future postgraduate or professional studies in animal health & management. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of scientific thinking and writing are significant components of the course. Credit may not be received for both BIOL 311 and 314 Prerequisites: BIOL-110, BIOL-111, and MATH-120

BIOL-314 Human Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the physiology of the human body including the physiology of enzymes and membranes, tissue physiology (nervous, muscular), and a detailed survey of the physiology of the major organ systems. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111; or BIOL-110 and BIOL-305 Credit may not be received for both BIOL 311 and 314

Ecology (1 course)

BIOL-350 Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Analysis of the distribution and abundance of organisms, population growth and regulation, and species interactions, as well as community and ecosystem processes. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111

BIOL/ENVR-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics include antibiotic resistance; biodegradation; biodiversity; biofuels; bioremediation; extreme environments; geochemical cycles; methods for sampling; culture and analysis of environmental microorganisms; microbiology of air, water and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-401)

Organismal Biology (1 course)

BIOL-320 Developmental Biology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Introduction to developmental biology with a focus on its fundamental aspects: embryogenesis, growth, cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. The study of theory is supplemented with hands-on observations of early development in animal embryos (salamander and/or mouse, or other animals). We also consider the impact of recent advances in developmental biology on our society by exploring the ethical, moral, and religious implications, as well as the legal issues that inevitably arise from work in this field. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and one additional BIOL course numbered 200 or above Offered alternate years

BIOL-322 Mammalogy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures will focus on phylogenetics, the origin and evolution of mammals and their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, species identification and common field techniques used to study mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-400 Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introductory survey of microbiology with an emphasis on bacteriology. The lecture component covers the structure, nutrition, metabolism, and genetics of microbes, medical microbiology, diagnostic techniques, microbial ecology, and industrial microbiology. The lab component includes biological safety, microscopy, culture techniques, media, staining, identification of unknown bacteria and an independent research project. Two lectures and two labs per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or permission of instructor; BIOL-325 recommended

BIOL-403 Pathogenic Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Exploration of major human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. Topics include host-parasite interactions, host defenses, pathogenic mechanisms, control of microorganisms, diagnosis and identification of infectious agents, antibiotic therapy, disease transmission and epidemiology. Class activities include discussion of medical case studies, literature analysis, identification of unknowns, and field trips. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-309 or permission of instructor; BIOL-325 and BIOL-400 strongly recommended

BIOL-440 Animal Behavior

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the theoretical framework and the methodology of animal behavior research. Students examine the causation, development, current function, and evolutionary history of behavior of invertebrates and vertebrates. Integrates concepts and principles from multiple disciplines to understand behaviors such as foraging and predation, mating systems, communication, parental care, social hierarchies, and territoriality. Students also review the history of the field of animal behavior and the contributions that animal behavior research can make to applied disciplines such as environmental conservation, biomedical research, and human psychology. Prerequisites: Any one of the following: BIOL-311, BIOL-314, or BIOL-350, PSY-210, or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-440)

Pre-Health (1 elective)

BIOL-305 Introduction to Human Anatomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the structure and function of the human body, examining the skeletal, muscular, circulatory, nervous, digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems. Lecture focuses on topics of physiology/function, histology, and their relation to anatomical structure, while the lab focuses on descriptive anatomy. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-110, or permission of instructor

BIOL-308 Domestic Animal Nutrition

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to nutrition and digestion in domestic animals, designed primarily for students in the pre-veterinary program. Topics include major nutrient classes and their functions in the body, feed classification and chemical analysis, feed processing, and nutrient requirements. Prerequisite: BIOL-111

BIOL-410 Immunology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Development of immune responses through humoral and cell-mediated mechanisms transplantation and tumor immunology, hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmunity, and serology. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-325 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years

BIOL-412 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Comparative study of the major organ systems in vertebrate animals. Lectures examine topics such as the origin and adaptive evolution of vertebrate anatomy and the systematic relationships between vertebrate groups. The lab provides a detailed examination of vertebrate anatomy. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BCHM-355 Biochemistry I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to the major biomolecular compound classes, including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, along with a survey of enzyme kinetics and the overall regulation of key metabolic pathways. Three lectures per week. Prerequisite: CHEM-250 or CHEM-306/310

-or-

BCHM-356 Biochemistry I With Lab

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to the major biomolecular compound classes, including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, along with a survey of enzyme kinetics and the overall regulation of key metabolic pathways. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: CHEM-250 or CHEM-306/310

BCHM-455 Biochemistry II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A continuation of the topics covered in Biochemistry I, with special attention paid to the classic chemical reactions at work in biological systems. The intersection of biochemical principles with such applications as drug discovery and computational modeling will be emphasized as a mechanism for understanding the fundamental relationship between structure and function. Three lectures per week. Prerequisite: BCHM-355 or BCHM-356

Track 3-Ecology

Consists of 17 to 20 credits chosen from the following:

Cell Biology/Physiology (1 course)

BIOL-311 Animal Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to animal physiology - how animals function at cellular, systems and organismal levels. Knowledge that is acquired in this course serves as an excellent foundation for future postgraduate or professional studies in animal health & management. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of scientific thinking and writing are significant components of the course. Credit may not be received for both BIOL 311 and 314 Prerequisites: BIOL-110, BIOL-111, and MATH-120

BIOL-314 Human Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the physiology of the human body including the physiology of enzymes and membranes, tissue physiology (nervous, muscular), and a detailed survey of the physiology of the major organ systems. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111; or BIOL-110 and BIOL-305 Credit may not be received for both BIOL 311 and 314

BIOL-325 Molecular Biology of the Cell

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The molecular basis of cell structure and function. Topics include the chemistry, architecture and analysis of macromolecules, overview of thermodynamics and metabolism, enzymology, genetic processes and controls, recombinant DNA technology, and cell signaling mechanisms. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and CHEM-161, or permission of instructor

BIOL/ENVR-360 Environmental Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will provide a framework for studying how animals function in their native environments at different stages of their life cycles. Its scope is animal physiology blended with environmental science: principles of physiological mechanisms are examined from the perspective of physiological adaptation in a given environmental context, including specific adaptations to environmental extremes. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of critical scientific thinking and scientific writing are significant components of the course. Prerequisites: BIOL-110 and BIOL-111, and MATH-120 (Cross-listed as ENVR-360)

Ecology (1 course)

BIOL-350 Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Analysis of the distribution and abundance of organisms, population growth and regulation, and species interactions, as well as community and ecosystem processes. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111

Organismal Biology (1 course)

BIOL-316 Ornithology: the Biology of Birds

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviors that have produced an extraordinary biodiversity of bird species. The major groups of modern birds are introduced, and their origin and ecology are examined. Students learn to recognize local species in the field and examine them in the lab using the ornithology collections. Suitable for both biology majors and non-majors. Prerequisites: BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 Offered alternate years

BIOL-321 Herpetology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

An introduction to the study of amphibians and reptiles. Lectures will focus on the origin and evolution of amphibians and reptiles, and on their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, anatomy, species identification, and common field techniques used to study these groups. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-322 Mammalogy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures will focus on phylogenetics, the origin and evolution of mammals and their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, species identification and common field techniques used to study mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-340 Botany

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of the plant kingdom that will include topics ranging from plant anatomy, physiology, diversity and ecology. Students interested in ecology, forestry and wildlife biology will find this course particularly useful. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-400 Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introductory survey of microbiology with an emphasis on bacteriology. The lecture component covers the structure, nutrition, metabolism, and genetics of microbes, medical microbiology, diagnostic techniques, microbial ecology, and industrial microbiology. The lab component includes biological safety, microscopy, culture techniques, media, staining, identification of unknown bacteria and an independent research project. Two lectures and two labs per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or permission of instructor; BIOL-325 recommended

BIOL-403 Pathogenic Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Exploration of major human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. Topics include host-parasite interactions, host defenses, pathogenic mechanisms, control of microorganisms, diagnosis and identification of infectious agents, antibiotic therapy, disease transmission and epidemiology. Class activities include discussion of medical case studies, literature analysis, identification of unknowns, and field trips. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-309 or permission of instructor; BIOL-325 and BIOL-400 strongly recommended

BIOL-420 Plant Taxonomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Broad survey of the diversity and classification of vascular plants. Students will learn to recognize common and important plant families as well as learn to identify local taxa. Traditional and modern methods of taxonomy and systematics are presented. Prerequisite: BIOL-111; BIOL-430 recommended Offered alternate years

BIOL/ENVR-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. Special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest, and invasive species. Lab includes basic ecology and behavior but focuses heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisites: BIOL/ENVR-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-433)

BIOL-440 Animal Behavior

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the theoretical framework and the methodology of animal behavior research. Students examine the causation, development, current function, and evolutionary history of behavior of invertebrates and vertebrates. Integrates concepts and principles from multiple disciplines to understand behaviors such as foraging and predation, mating systems, communication, parental care, social hierarchies, and territoriality. Students also review the history of the field of animal behavior and the contributions that animal behavior research can make to applied disciplines such as environmental conservation, biomedical research, and human psychology. Prerequisites: Any one of the following: BIOL-311, BIOL-314, or BIOL-350, PSY-210, or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-440)

Ecology and Organismal Biology (1 course)

BIOL-316 Ornithology: the Biology of Birds

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviors that have produced an extraordinary biodiversity of bird species. The major groups of modern birds are introduced, and their origin and ecology are examined. Students learn to recognize local species in the field and examine them in the lab using the ornithology collections. Suitable for both biology majors and non-majors. Prerequisites: BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 Offered alternate years

BIOL-320 Developmental Biology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Introduction to developmental biology with a focus on its fundamental aspects: embryogenesis, growth, cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. The study of theory is supplemented with hands-on observations of early development in animal embryos (salamander and/or mouse, or other animals). We also consider the impact of recent advances in developmental biology on our society by exploring the ethical, moral, and religious implications, as well as the legal issues that inevitably arise from work in this field. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and one additional BIOL course numbered 200 or above Offered alternate years

BIOL-321 Herpetology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

An introduction to the study of amphibians and reptiles. Lectures will focus on the origin and evolution of amphibians and reptiles, and on their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, anatomy, species identification, and common field techniques used to study these groups. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-322 Mammalogy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures will focus on phylogenetics, the origin and evolution of mammals and their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, species identification and common field techniques used to study mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-340 Botany

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of the plant kingdom that will include topics ranging from plant anatomy, physiology, diversity and ecology. Students interested in ecology, forestry and wildlife biology will find this course particularly useful. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-400 Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introductory survey of microbiology with an emphasis on bacteriology. The lecture component covers the structure, nutrition, metabolism, and genetics of microbes, medical microbiology, diagnostic techniques, microbial ecology, and industrial microbiology. The lab component includes biological safety, microscopy, culture techniques, media, staining, identification of unknown bacteria and an independent research project. Two lectures and two labs per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or permission of instructor; BIOL-325 recommended

BIOL/ENVR-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics include antibiotic resistance; biodegradation; biodiversity; biofuels; bioremediation; extreme environments; geochemical cycles; methods for sampling; culture and analysis of environmental microorganisms; microbiology of air, water and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-401)

BIOL-403 Pathogenic Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Exploration of major human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. Topics include host-parasite interactions, host defenses, pathogenic mechanisms, control of microorganisms, diagnosis and identification of infectious agents, antibiotic therapy, disease transmission and epidemiology. Class activities include discussion of medical case studies, literature analysis, identification of unknowns, and field trips. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-309 or permission of instructor; BIOL-325 and BIOL-400 strongly recommended

BIOL-420 Plant Taxonomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Broad survey of the diversity and classification of vascular plants. Students will learn to recognize common and important plant families as well as learn to identify local taxa. Traditional and modern methods of taxonomy and systematics are presented. Prerequisite: BIOL-111; BIOL-430 recommended Offered alternate years

BIOL/ENVR-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. Special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest, and invasive species. Lab includes basic ecology and behavior but focuses heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisites: BIOL/ENVR-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-433)

BIOL/ENVR-435 Freshwater Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to aquatic ecosystems (lakes, ponds, streams and wetlands). Students learn about the major chemical and physical processes that determine the function of freshwater systems. Students are introduced to the major groups of aquatic organisms (algae, vascular plants, invertebrates, fish and amphibians). Strong emphasis on the impacts that humans have on freshwater systems. The lab introduces the basic skills necessary for the study and management of fresh waters. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-435)

BIOL-440 Animal Behavior

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the theoretical framework and the methodology of animal behavior research. Students examine the causation, development, current function, and evolutionary history of behavior of invertebrates and vertebrates. Integrates concepts and principles from multiple disciplines to understand behaviors such as foraging and predation, mating systems, communication, parental care, social hierarchies, and territoriality. Students also review the history of the field of animal behavior and the contributions that animal behavior research can make to applied disciplines such as environmental conservation, biomedical research, and human psychology. Prerequisites: Any one of the following: BIOL-311, BIOL-314, or BIOL-350, PSY-210, or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-440)

And 1 Environmental Science course numbered 300 or higher, listed as BIOL/ENVR (3-4 credits)

For the elective BIOL or ENVR courses in the tracks, only 3 credits may be chosen from BIOL or ENVR-460, 490, 491 or 499, and Internship (BIOL or ENVR-480) cannot be used to meet this requirement.Students wishing to double major in biolog y and environmental science or in chemistry and environmental science may not overlap or double count the electives selected on the environmental science plan of major to the other major.

Biology Minor

Degree Type Offered: Minor

Consists of 21-24 credit hours including the following courses:

BIOL-110 Principles of Biology I

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the biological sciences, covering biological chemistry, cell/tissue structure and function, genetics and microevolution. Intended for biology, health and human sciences, and environmental science majors. Three lectures and one lab per week. Corequisites: MATH-110 or MATH-118 Biology and environmental science majors should take MATH-110. Other students should consult with their advisor about which course to take. FILA general education: natural and physical sciences

BIOL-111 Principles of Biology II

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the biological sciences covering macroevolution (systematic, taxonomy, phylogenetics), ecology and biodiversity. Intended for biology and environmental science majors. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-110

BIOL-309 Genetics

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to both classical, Mendelian inheritance and molecular genetics with one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor; CHEM-161 recommended

And 3 additional 300-400 level BIOL elective courses

For the elective BIOL courses, only 3 credits may be chosen from BIOL-460, BIOL-490, BIOL-491 or BIOL-499, and Internship (BIOL-480) cannot be used to meet this requirement.

Environmental Chemistry Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

The environmental chemistry emphasis allows students majoring in environmental science or biology to pursue additional depth of preparation in a unique combination of courses. Students learn chemical techniques, analytics, sampling methods and instrumentation which are relevant to the understanding of environmental issues. Learning to find trace atmospheric, soil and water-borne constituents of either human or natural origin are critical to identifying potential pollutants in water, soil and the organic tissues of living organisms. This emphasis gives students distinctive training in chemical analysis of the
environment.
 
The following courses are required:

CHEM-305 Organic Chemistry I

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Structure, nomenclature, and properties of organic molecules. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-162 or permission of instructor Credit may not be received for both CHEM-250 and 305

-and-

CHEM-306 Organic Chemistry II

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Continuation of organic chemistry started in CHEM-305, including reaction mechanisms, thermodynamics, synthesis, and identification of organic molecules. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisite: CHEM-305

-or-

CHEM-310 Organic Chemistry II & Spectroscopy

Credits: 5 Term Offered: Spring Only

A continuation of organic chemistry started in CHEM-305, including a study of the interpretation of infrared spectroscopy, proton and carbon NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The lab will be an introduction to chemical research that includes research methods and techniques through a series of experiments. Prerequisite: CHEM-305 Credit may not be received for both CHEM-306 and CHEM-310, or for both CHEM-308 and CHEM-310

ENVR-320 Analytical Environmental Chemistry

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The chemistry and quantitative aspects of environmentally important cycles (C, N, O, P, S) in the context of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Major environmental issues are discussed such as acid rain, sewage treatment, ozone destruction, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and eutrophication. Laboratories involve sampling, quantitative detection and data analysis. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-162 Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

GEOL-330 Soil and Hydrogeology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is a study of the environment on the Earth's surface, the boundary between the solid and liquid, and interactions between rock and water. This will include weathering and the formation of soil, and the flow of water at the surface and below ground level. Lab activities will include sampling and analysis of soil, surface water, and groundwater. Prerequisite: ENVR-301 Alternate years: offered 2020-2021

Choose two:

CHEM-380 Instrumental Analysis

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Exposure to methods of quantitation, signal-to- noise enhancement, instrumental design and function, methods of spectroscopy, chromatography, electroanalytical analysis, and mass spectrometry. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisite: CHEM-250 or CHEM-305

ENVR/BIOL-360 Environmental Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will provide a framework for studying how animals function in their native environments at different stages of their life cycles. Its scope is animal physiology blended with environmental science: principles of physiological mechanisms are examined from the perspective of physiological adaptation in a given environmental context, including specific adaptations to environmental extremes. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of critical scientific thinking and scientific writing are significant components of the course. Prerequisites: BIOL-110 and BIOL-111, and MATH-120 (Cross-listed as BIOL-360)

ENVR-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics will include: antibiotic resistance, biodegradation, biodiversity, biofuels, bioremediation, extreme environments, geochemical cycles, methods for sampling, culture, and analysis of environmental microorganisms, microbiology of air, water, and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR/CHEM-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-401)

Freshwater Resources Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

The freshwater resources emphasis allows students majoring in environmental science or biology to focus on availability, ecology and protection of water resources. While water is a basic resource for all life, many human activities degrade water quality requiring specialists who are able to help maintain water quality. This emphasis allows students to delve into the issues of water quality from a biological, chemical and geological perspective.

ENVR-320 Analytical Environmental Chemistry

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The chemistry and quantitative aspects of environmentally important cycles (C, N, O, P, S) in the context of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Major environmental issues are discussed such as acid rain, sewage treatment, ozone destruction, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and eutrophication. Laboratories involve sampling, quantitative detection and data analysis. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-162 Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

ENVR/BIOL-435 Freshwater Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An introduction to aquatic ecosystems (lakes, ponds, streams and wetlands). Students will learn about the major chemical and physical processes that determine the function of freshwater systems. Students will be introduced to the major groups of aquatic organisms (algae, vascular plants, invertebrates and fish). Includes strong emphasis on the impacts that humans have on freshwater systems. The lab will introduce the basic skills necessary for the study and management of fresh waters. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-435)

Choose three:

ENVR/BIOL-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

A survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics will include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. There will be special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest and invasive species. Lab will include basic ecology and behavior but will focus heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisite: ENVR/BIOL-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-433)

ENVR/BIOL-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics will include: antibiotic resistance, biodegradation, biodiversity, biofuels, bioremediation, extreme environments, geochemical cycles, methods for sampling, culture, and analysis of environmental microorganisms, microbiology of air, water, and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR/CHEM-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-401)

ENVR/BIOL-370 Stormwater Management and Nonpoint Source Pollution

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

In this course, students will learn about stormwater management practices and their effectiveness, as well as regulatory efforts. In addition, rural and agricultural practices that impact water quality will be addressed. Presentations and field assignments will be part of the course so students see how local work affects watershed quality. Students will learn management techniques specific to urban and rural environments; as well as the economic, political and sociological implications of these solutions. Prerequisites: ENVR-101 or BIOL-111 (Cross-listed as BIOL-370)

ENVR-330 Introduction to Geographical Information Systems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

An introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS is a computerized system that allows users to collect, store, visualize and analyze locational/geospatial data. Students learn basic cartographic concepts and the use of common GIS software programs. The course focuses on environmental and biological applications of GIS while the technology also has many applications in earth sciences, urban planning, business, etc. Prerequisite: MATH-120 or permission of instructor

GEOL-330 Soil and Hydrogeology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is a study of the environment on the Earth's surface, the boundary between the solid and liquid, and interactions between rock and water. This will include weathering and the formation of soil, and the flow of water at the surface and below ground level. Lab activities will include sampling and analysis of soil, surface water, and groundwater. Prerequisite: ENVR-301 Alternate years: offered 2020-2021

Wildlife Biology Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

The wildlife biology emphasis allows students wanting the breadth of the biology or environmental science major to also focus in areas of wildlife biology and management. In this program, students take 11–17 additional credits on top of their major to specialize in wildlife. The program offers directed study in wildlife management and techniques, botany, zoology, and policy and ethics. This program along with the biology or environmental science major and the general education requirements supports students wishing to pursue careers with state and federal agencies, graduate degree programs in wildlife biology, as well as those who wish to pursue Wildlife Biologist Certification through the Wildlife Society.
 
Consists of 23 credits. The requirements are as follows:

Wildlife Management and Techniques

Take one course:

BIOL/ENVR-312W Wildlife Ecology and Management

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Explores the ecology and management of wildlife with an emphasis on North American mammals and birds. Topics include habitat quality, forestry, nutrition, disease, population dynamics and diversity. Also explores human dimensions in the North American stakeholder model of wildlife management. Lab emphasizes field techniques. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW; ENG-110 and BIOL-111 or permission of instructor Alternate years offered: 2020-2021 FILA general education: writing intensive (Cross-listed as ENVR-312W)

BIOL/ENVR-365 Field Biology & Natural History

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Summer

Field-based course providing a broad overview of techniques and concepts involved in field biology (especially ecology) including basic scientific method and a variety of sampling techniques. Course content also has a strong emphasis on basic natural history as students learn about and experience a wide variety of organisms (e.g. plant, fungi, insects, fish, amphibians, and mammals), ecosystems (e.g. forests, grasslands, wetlands, ponds, and streams) and ecological interactions. Students will also discuss techniques for interpreting/teaching these biological concepts to others. Prerequisite: BIOL-111, or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as ENVR-356)

BIOL/ENVR-402 Conversation Biology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of the methods used by the public and private sectors to manage the environment and natural resources. Primary emphasis on restoration ecology and conservation biology. Other topics addressed include environmental engineering (e.g. green chemistry and design of pollution control devices), economic considerations in conservation (e.g. conservation land easements and ecotourism), and government regulation. The lab provides students with experience applying standard methods of monitoring biological resources. The lab also provides an opportunity for students to hear talks from environmental experts and to travel to local sites where management activities are occurring. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-402)

Molecules, Anatomy and Physiology

Take one course:

BIOL-309 Genetics

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to both classical, Mendelian inheritance and molecular genetics with one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor; CHEM-161 recommended

BIOL-311 Animal Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to animal physiology - how animals function at cellular, systems and organismal levels. Knowledge that is acquired in this course serves as an excellent foundation for future postgraduate or professional studies in animal health & management. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of scientific thinking and writing are significant components of the course. Credit may not be received for both BIOL 311 and 314 Prerequisites: BIOL-110, BIOL-111, and MATH-120

BIOL-325 Molecular Biology of the Cell

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The molecular basis of cell structure and function. Topics include the chemistry, architecture and analysis of macromolecules, overview of thermodynamics and metabolism, enzymology, genetic processes and controls, recombinant DNA technology, and cell signaling mechanisms. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and CHEM-161, or permission of instructor

BIOL/ENVR-360 Environmental Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will provide a framework for studying how animals function in their native environments at different stages of their life cycles. Its scope is animal physiology blended with environmental science: principles of physiological mechanisms are examined from the perspective of physiological adaptation in a given environmental context, including specific adaptations to environmental extremes. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of critical scientific thinking and scientific writing are significant components of the course. Prerequisites: BIOL-110 and BIOL-111, and MATH-120 (Cross-listed as ENVR-360)

BIOL-412 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Comparative study of the major organ systems in vertebrate animals. Lectures examine topics such as the origin and adaptive evolution of vertebrate anatomy and the systematic relationships between vertebrate groups. The lab provides a detailed examination of vertebrate anatomy. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

Botany

Take one course:

BIOL-335 Summer Flora

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Summer

Survey of the vascular flora of the Shenandoah Valley and surrounding mountain areas. Field-based course that introduces students to the identification of plants in the field of their ecology. Plant collection and specimen preservation are also included. Prerequisites: BIOL-111

BIOL-340 Botany

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of the plant kingdom that will include topics ranging from plant anatomy, physiology, diversity and ecology. Students interested in ecology, forestry and wildlife biology will find this course particularly useful. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-420 Plant Taxonomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Broad survey of the diversity and classification of vascular plants. Students will learn to recognize common and important plant families as well as learn to identify local taxa. Traditional and modern methods of taxonomy and systematics are presented. Prerequisite: BIOL-111; BIOL-430 recommended Offered alternate years

Zoology/Organisms

Take two courses:

BIOL-316 Ornithology: the Biology of Birds

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviors that have produced an extraordinary biodiversity of bird species. The major groups of modern birds are introduced, and their origin and ecology are examined. Students learn to recognize local species in the field and examine them in the lab using the ornithology collections. Suitable for both biology majors and non-majors. Prerequisites: BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 Offered alternate years

BIOL-321 Herpetology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

An introduction to the study of amphibians and reptiles. Lectures will focus on the origin and evolution of amphibians and reptiles, and on their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, anatomy, species identification, and common field techniques used to study these groups. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-322 Mammalogy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures will focus on phylogenetics, the origin and evolution of mammals and their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, species identification and common field techniques used to study mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL/ENVR-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. Special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest, and invasive species. Lab includes basic ecology and behavior but focuses heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisites: BIOL/ENVR-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-433)

BIOL-440 Animal Behavior

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the theoretical framework and the methodology of animal behavior research. Students examine the causation, development, current function, and evolutionary history of behavior of invertebrates and vertebrates. Integrates concepts and principles from multiple disciplines to understand behaviors such as foraging and predation, mating systems, communication, parental care, social hierarchies, and territoriality. Students also review the history of the field of animal behavior and the contributions that animal behavior research can make to applied disciplines such as environmental conservation, biomedical research, and human psychology. Prerequisites: Any one of the following: BIOL-311, BIOL-314, or BIOL-350, PSY-210, or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-440)

Policy/Ethics

Take one course:

PHIL-235E Bioethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Confronts a number of modern scientific and ethical problems including abortion, genetic testing, genetically modified plants and animals, stem cells, gene therapy, research on humans, and physician-assisted suicide. Biology and biotechnology often confound our notions of right and wrong, and what ethical behavior is. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general Education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning Offered alternate years

PHIL-320E Professional Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Pressing issues confronting professionals in a technological era. Utilizing the insights of philosophical and religious ethics, the course examines the responsibilities of the professional person in business, medicine, law education, the ministry, and other fields. Problems considered include confidentiality, accountability, whistleblowing, governmental regulation, and ethical codes. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG 110 and junior or senior standing FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

ENVR-234E Wildlife Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

This course will explore the ethical implications of wildlife management, research and stewardship by applying ethical frameworks to issues surrounding wildlife. Possible topics include reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone and subsequent delisting, predator control, supplemental feeding, logging/wildlife conflicts, hunting culture, etc. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, ENG-110 and BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 or ENVR-101 FILA general education: ethical reasoning

ENVR-305 Natural Resource & Environmental Law

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course will provide an overview of federal and state laws that are aimed at the conservation of natural resources and/or protection of environmental quality. Major laws that will be covered include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act and others. Speakers from natural resource/environmental agencies such as the Va. Department of Environmental Quality, Va. Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and U.S. Forest Service will provide practical insights into the application and implementation of environmental policy. Alternate years: offered 2020-2021 Prerequisites: BIOL-100, 101 or 110

Social Sciences for Health Professionals Concentration

Degree Type Offered: Concentration

This concentration helps prepare students for health-care related careers in medicine, nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, occupational therapy and others. Understanding the complexities of human behavior, development and identity is crucial to a successful career as a health professional. In addition, communication skills are critical for effective provider-patient relationships.
 
Consists of 18 credits including the following courses:

PSY-101 General Psychology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to psychology as a natural and a social science. Topics include the methods of science, biological bases of behavior, developmental processes, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, conditioning and learning, memory and cognition, motivation and emotion, theories and assessment of intelligence and personality, diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders, and social-cultural influences on behavior. FILA general education: social sciences

SOC-101 Sociological Imagination

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the sociological imagination, with a critical examination of social issues, individual experiences, and the potential for social change. Topics include the nature and impact of culture and social structure, inequality, social institutions, identity, social interaction, and the historical context of knowledge and relationships. Methods of sociological investigation and interpretation are also emphasized. This course is offered in traditional survey and special topics formats. Corequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

And four courses (at least one from each category) from the following topics list:

Note that no discipline prefix may be used more than three times. For example, after completing PSY-101 and SOC-101, only two more courses in the concentration may be chosen from the PSY or SOC prefixed courses.

Topics in Behavior and Cognition

PSY-240 Behavioral Psychology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the experimental analysis of behavior. Historical and modern approaches in the scientific study of learning are discussed. Students are required to demonstrate factual knowledge in the major content areas, procedures, and other advanced issues in regards to simple forms of learning such as habituation and sensitization and more complex forms of associative learning exemplified in classical and operant conditioning. Prerequisite: PSY-230 or permission of instructor

PSY-310 Abnormal Psychology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Empirical findings related to the description, classification, assessment, etiology and treatments of various psychological disorders. Specific disorders examined include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance-related disorders, personality disorders, and schizophrenia. An important emphasis is understanding the impact of mental illness on individuals and their family and friends. Prerequisite: PSY-101 or SOC-101, or permission of instructor

PSY/BIOL-317 Biology of Mind

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of the contribution of neuroscience techniques to the understanding of sensation/perception, attention, learning, memory, language and consciousness. Lectures and papers involve an analysis of the interdisciplinary methods such as functional neuroimaging, electrophysiological methods , and the neurological impairments of brain-damaged patients. Prerequisites: PSY-101 and PSY-210 or BIOL-110, or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-317)

PSY-330 Memory and Cognition

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Investigation of the major areas of cognitive psychology. Topics include perception and attention, representation of knowledge, models of memory, problem solving/reasoning, language and intelligence. Analysis of the validity and reliability of measuring cognitive processes occur through participation in hands-on experiments and demonstrations. Prerequisite: PSY-101 or permission of the instructor

PSY-390 Sensation and Perception

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Survey of theories, principles, and facts concerning the sensory sciences. Emphasis on the study of physical, physiological, and psychological principles governing how we acquire information from the environment through the senses, and the organization of these sensations into meaningful, interpretable experiences. Although the focus is on mechanisms, the influence of disease, development, and aging are also considered. Prerequisite: PSY-210 or permission of the instructor Alternate years: offered 2020-2021

Topics in Life Span and Development

FCS-312X Adult Development and Aging

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examine issues related to geriatrics with emphasis on issues including historical, cultural, biological, physiological, psychological, and social contexts. Opportunities for experiential learning in residential and intermediate facilities with appropriate agencies. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: experiential learning

PSY-370 Developmental Psychology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Surveys historical approaches, basic issues, recent research, and current theoretical perspectives in developmental psychology. Emphasis on describing and explaining the changes that characterize physical, perceptual, cognitive, social, and emotional development across the lifespan. Prerequisite: PSY-101 or permission of instructor

SOC-366E Sociology of Birth and Death

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of how society supports, controls and constrains our arrival into and departure from the world, revealing the ways that events often assumed to be "natural" are in fact conditioned by social and cultural forces. Special emphasis on the communication of cultural norms regarding birth and death, the impact of advances in medicine and technology, and how birth and death become cultural metaphors for other social phenomena. The course includes an interfaith studies component focused on Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Native American death rituals. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, ENG-110, and SOC-101 FILA general education: ethical reasoning

Topics in Diversity and Identity

BIOL-215 Biology of Human Diversity & Pseudoscience of Racism

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Human populations throughout the world differ in their physical appearance, behavior, customs, lifestyles, etc. Students learn about the biological basis of human homogeneity and diversity, and critically examine the construct of race as a sanctioned method of classifying human species into different groups. Consideration of biological principles that define species and subgroups, and discussion of key differences between early and modern techniques that biologists use to classify organisms. Case studies and examples from geographic locations around the world address some of the enormous social implications (health care, education, law enforcement) of using faulty science to group human beings into distinct racial categories Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW; ENG-110; MATH-110 or MATH-115 or MATH-118; and BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 FILA general education: global dynamics Offered alternate years

FCS/SOC-368W Sociology of the Family

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examination of the human family historically and comparatively in various cultures with major emphasis placed upon the modern American family. Included are such topics as the diversity of family structures, the social construction of emotions, gender expectations and roles, parenting, the life cycle, and family tensions. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, SOC-101 and ENG-110 FILA general education: writing intensive (Cross-listed as SOC-368W)

FCS-319 Families and Individuals in Societal Contexts

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Students will examine family and interpersonal relationships from a variety of theoretical and conceptual frameworks to gain an understanding of the changes in society relative to marriage and family. Students will engage in critical examination of issues related to families, work, and their interrelationships. Using family science theories, students will consider the contextual factors that influence the family. Emphasis placed upon the reciprocal impacts of relationships within the family and a person's relationships to individuals and society. This course focuses on family as a basic social institution, the various theoretical perspectives on the family, and provides an overview of current social scientific research on the family. The history, structure, and functions of the family will be addressed as will topics such as dating, cohabitation, marriage, parenting, family violence, and divorce. Corequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: social sciences

FCS-408X Parent and Child Relations

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Overview of the process of parenting in diverse cultural and familial structures. Exploration of issues related to parenting at various stages of development, as well as formation of parenting goals and styles. Emphasis placed on parent-child interactions through the child rearing years. Provides an emphasis on evidence-based practices and evaluation of programming. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: experiential learning

PSCI/SOC-205 Global Identities

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Interdisciplinary exploration of the power and dynamics of human similarities and differences on a global scale. Covers globalization from the perspective of identity and difference, and provides opportunities to question contemporary assumptions, values and patterns of behavior with the goal of making global interactions more constructive ad more peaceful. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: global dynamics

PSY-350 Social Psychology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Overview of the study of how people's behaviors, attitudes, and feelings are shaped by other people and the social environment. Topics include attraction, prejudice, deindividuation, persuasion, cognitive dissonance, social cognition, attribution theory and the social self. Emphasis on classic research and the latest studies in the field and their applicability to everyday experiences of the students. Prerequisite: PSY-101 or permission of the instructor

PSY-380 Human Sexuality

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Overview of the psychological, social and biological aspects of sexuality that will be of use for communicating with romantic partners, doctors and family members. Topics include: sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted diseases, methods of contraception, prenatal sexual differentiation, sex research, attraction and love, sexual orientation and sexual dysfunction, and sexual ethics. Prerequisites: PSY-101 or SOC-101 and junior or senior standing

SOC-203 Social Problems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Problems such as population growth, environment and resource depletion, alcoholism and drug addiction, crime and violence, inequity and poverty, unemployment, alienation and others will be studied. Development of public awareness, role of social movements, theoretical approaches, value conflicts, interest groups and power struggles, and potential solutions will also be examined.

SOC-333 Racial and Ethnic Studies

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

The nature of racial relations and inequalities in American society, including their historical origins and relationship to Western capitalist development. The ethnic composition of contemporary American society, impact of legal and illegal immigration patterns, dynamics of modern structures and institutions, the Civil Rights Movement, inter-ethnic conflicts and attitudes, multiculturalism and status of affirmative action are analyzed in the context of national and global social change. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and SOC-101 FILA general education: global dynamics

SOC-334 Gender and Sexuality Studies

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to a variety of conceptual frameworks and theoretical lenses relating to human gender and sexualities, including social constructionism, political economy, and cultural studies. A critical, global, historical, and sociological approach will be emphasized to unpack gendered ad sexualized social structures like patriarchy, heterosexism, and hegemonic masculinity. Special attention will be paid to social movements and challenges to power/resource inequalities made by gender and sexuality-based minority groups. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and SOC-101 FILA general education: global dynamics Offered alternate years

Topics in Communication and Health Fields

COMM-230 Communication Technologies: History, Culture, and Society

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

An introduction to the history and influence of communication technology in society. The class will explore the various social, political, cultural, and economic impacts of new communication technology. Major topics include: the origins of writing, printing, photography, film, the telegraph and telephone, radio, television, and the internet.

COMM-240 Contemporary Media Industries

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines how electronic media industries have changed the way we produce and consume media products. The course will examine how the digital age has impacted notions of interactivity, virtual space, media production, networks and credibility. Particular attention will be paid to the social, economic and political implications of these changes.

COMM-327 Interpersonal Communication

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines issues related to communication within personal and professional relationships. Students will develop theoretical and practical understandings of verbal and nonverbal communication, the role of technology in interpersonal communication and how interpersonal communication functions to develop, negotiate, maintain and terminate relationships.

COMM-334 Intercultural Communication

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Theoretical and practical survey of intercultural communication processes. Examines intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and mass media dimensions of intercultural communication. The course specifically focuses on the distinctive cultural behaviors, expectations, values and power dynamics that affect our abilities to communicate effectively and people from diverse cultures. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: world cultures

COMM-335 Communicating Sex and Gender

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Students will develop theoretical and practical understandings of the role of sex and gender in verbal and nonverbal communication, friendships, families, romantic relationships and professional relationships. This course also examines the issues of technology, health, power and violence as they related to sex and gender. Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

COMM-340 Representations of Gender, Race & Class

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines the media's role in creating and re-creating our understanding of gender, race, and class. Includes a historical perspective, and traces how these representations have changed over time, the forces that have affected representations of gender, race and class, and the current state of their representation in the media. A field trip to at least one museum in Washington, D.C. is planned, depending upon exhibits available at the time (e.g. National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian's American History Museum). Alternate years: offered 2020-2021

COMM-447 Science, Environment, and Health Communication

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Examines the role of news, advocacy, scientific analysis, decision and policy making, risk perception, and other factors in the communication of issues related to science, environment, and health. Provides students with rich theoretical background, critical understanding, and practical skills to produce, investigate and critique communication processes related to the topics. Students in this course are required to conduct field work and original research, write and publish news, and analytical articles.

ES-300X Personal and Community Health

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Examination of the multiple determinants of health and wellness from a personal and community perspective. Through service-based learning experiences, students critically analyze individual, social and environmental factors that influence health. This course requires students to spend time off-campus serving at community agencies in order to successfully fulfill course requirements. Prerequisites: ENG-110 and ES-230 or permission of the instructor FILA general education: experiential learning

ES-357X Global Healthcare and Sport

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Comparison of the similarities and differences between varied World Health Organization ranked global healthcare systems. Emphasis will be placed on exploring delivery, financing, and effectiveness of services within various healthcare systems, with a special focus on sports medicine and related prevention and intervention resources for athletes. The class will travel to Portugal and Hungary for 14 days. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: world cultures and experiential learning

ES-427 Health Promotion and Wellness

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Development of community based intervention strategies to modify health risk behaviors, with emphasis on theoretical foundations, and comprehensive program planning strategies.

ES-453 Counseling & Pharmacology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the concepts of pharmacology and counseling as related to healthcare. Prerequisite: ES-450

ES-456 Management Concepts in Health Care

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Concepts of administration such as devising policy and procedures, record-keeping, budgeting, facility design, risk management and productivity standards for healthcare professionals. (Cross-listed AT-456)

ES-467 Health & Exercise Psychology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examination of the mental health benefits of exercise as well as motivational factors involved in exercise and the many variables that influence exercise behavior (e.g., stress, emotional states, anxiety and depression). Additionally, this course explores the psychological antecedents and consequences of injury and illness. (Cross-listed as AT-467)

ES-470 Cultural Competence & Ethics Healthcare

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

This course is a directed study of cultural and ethical issues associated with varied allied health professional's service delivery. The experience is designed to advance the student's knowledge in providing healthcare for diverse cultural groups within the United States healthcare system including discussions related to the following: communications, family roles, high risk behaviors, healthcare practices, spirituality, and death rituals. Concurrently, the class will provide insight into the formation and use of various allied healthcare professional organization's code of ethics.

PSY-340 Public Mental Health

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Exposes students to a broad view of public mental health and psychology in the public interest. Stimulates the interest of future researchers, clinicians, and policy makers toward improvement of public mental health. Specific attention is given to discerning science from pseudoscience in the practice of psychology. Prerequisite: PSY-310 or permission of instructor

SOC-451 Counseling and Personal Development

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A survey of the concepts and practices of the major contemporary therapeutic (theory) systems used in the helping professions. Primary focus is placed on helping approaches and the various frameworks or understanding change and motivation to change. Goal setting, decision making, self-awareness, learning one's own helping strengths and limitations, and referral techniques are also included. Prerequisite: SOC-101

Endorsement in Biology (6-12)

Degree Type Offered: Teacher Licensure

Students majoring in Biology can be eligible for teacher licensure at the secondary level (6-12) by also completing the courses in the teacher education program.  As early as possible, contact Dr. Jenny Martin, coordinator for secondary education at jmartin@bridgewater.edu or 540-828-5662 for further information.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences

This program allows qualified students to seek early admission to the Sentara RMH School of Medical Laboratory Science or the Augusta Health School of Clinical Laboratory Science. If granted admission, it is the responsibility of the student to complete the following prior to entering this program:

  • The courses required for the Biology major with a minimum GPA of 2.0, including prerequisite courses for the Laboratory Science Program
  • The general education program requirements, including FILA-450
  • A minimum of 91 credit hours towards graduation, with a minimum cumulative GPA of 2.0

Upon completing this 12-month professional program with minimum grades of C in each course, the College will transfer 32 semester hours of credit to the student’s record to complete requirements for earning a bachelor’s degree from the College.

The Smithsonian-Mason Semester for Conservation Studies

Bridgewater College is a member institution of the Smithsonian-Mason Semester which is run by George Mason University out of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) in Front Royal, Va. In this program, students live on the SCBI campus (a world-class conservation research facility) and learn about the theory and application of conservation biology (including the social, political and economic dimensions). Students participate in one of two 16 credit hour programs: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation or Conservation, Biodiversity and Society (for any student interested in conservation). Interested students should visit the program’s website (smconservation.gmu.edu/programs/undergraduate) and contact the Department of Biology.
Both programs are appropriate for juniors and seniors. There are no specific prerequisite classes for Conservation, Biodiversity and Society. That program is open to all majors. The Wildlife Ecology and Conservation semester has Ecology (BIOL-350) as a prerequisite.

Dual Degree Programs (Biology)

The department has pursued dual degree programs with other institutions. These include physical therapy with Shenandoah University, veterinary medicine with Virginia Tech and clinical laboratory sciences with Sentara RMH and Augusta Health.
Qualified students may apply for early admission to the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech or another accredited veterinary program. If accepted, the student may earn the bachelor’s degree in biology from Bridgewater College by fulfilling the following requirements:

  • Complete all courses required for the biology major with a cumulative major GPA of at least 2.0;
  • Complete all courses required for the general education program, including PDP 450, with an overall GPA of at least 2.0;
  • Complete any remaining credits required for graduation from Bridgewater College with a grade of “C” or better while enrolled in an accredited veterinary medicine program.

Courses

BCHM-355 Biochemistry I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to the major biomolecular compound classes, including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, along with a survey of enzyme kinetics and the overall regulation of key metabolic pathways. Three lectures per week. Prerequisite: CHEM-250 or CHEM-306/310

BCHM-356 Biochemistry I With Lab

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to the major biomolecular compound classes, including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, along with a survey of enzyme kinetics and the overall regulation of key metabolic pathways. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: CHEM-250 or CHEM-306/310

BCHM-455 Biochemistry II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A continuation of the topics covered in Biochemistry I, with special attention paid to the classic chemical reactions at work in biological systems. The intersection of biochemical principles with such applications as drug discovery and computational modeling will be emphasized as a mechanism for understanding the fundamental relationship between structure and function. Three lectures per week. Prerequisite: BCHM-355 or BCHM-356

BIOL-100 The Nature of the Biological World

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Survey of the discipline of biology designed for the non-major. Content varies with the expertise of the instructor, but all sections focus on the relevance/importance of biology in everyday life. Laboratory focuses on understanding science as a process and includes an independent research project with oral presentation. Three lectures and one lab per week. Corequisite: MATH-118 FILA general education: natural and physical sciences

BIOL-110 Principles of Biology I

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the biological sciences, covering biological chemistry, cell/tissue structure and function, genetics and microevolution. Intended for biology, health and human sciences, and environmental science majors. Three lectures and one lab per week. Corequisites: MATH-110 or MATH-118 Biology and environmental science majors should take MATH-110. Other students should consult with their advisor about which course to take. FILA general education: natural and physical sciences

BIOL-111 Principles of Biology II

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the biological sciences covering macroevolution (systematic, taxonomy, phylogenetics), ecology and biodiversity. Intended for biology and environmental science majors. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-110

BIOL-215 Biology of Human Diversity & Pseudoscience of Racism

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Human populations throughout the world differ in their physical appearance, behavior, customs, lifestyles, etc. Students learn about the biological basis of human homogeneity and diversity, and critically examine the construct of race as a sanctioned method of classifying human species into different groups. Consideration of biological principles that define species and subgroups, and discussion of key differences between early and modern techniques that biologists use to classify organisms. Case studies and examples from geographic locations around the world address some of the enormous social implications (health care, education, law enforcement) of using faulty science to group human beings into distinct racial categories Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW; ENG-110; MATH-110 or MATH-115 or MATH-118; and BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 FILA general education: global dynamics Offered alternate years

BIOL-256 Conservation Biology of Florida

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Due to its location, geology and climate, Florida supports a variety of unique species and ecosystems. It also supports rapidly growing human populations and diverse economic activities. This course provides an overview of environmental and conservation issues that have arisen as human activity has increased (including water quality, decline of biodiversity, invasive species, and wetland loss and restoration). The class travels to Florida where they learn about environmental and conservation problems and solutions. Students examine the science as well as the economic, political and social aspects of the issues. Prerequisites: BIOL-100, BIOL-101, or BIOL-110, or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as ENVR-256)

BIOL-257X Marine Ecology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Field-based introduction to the biology and ecology of marine organisms and their habitats. Students learn about 1) the ocean as an environment, 2) the characteristics of organisms living in and near the ocean with a focus on marine invertebrates and fishes, and 3) ecological principles that govern the distribution and abundance of those organisms. A major focus is on the ecology of tropical marine ecosystems. Thus, students spend much of their time in the water investigating ecosystems such as mangrove estuaries, sea grass beds, and coral reefs. Applied aspects of marine ecology including human impacts, managements, conservation, fisheries and tourism are included throughout the course. There is also time to explore terrestrial tropical ecosystems, such as freshwater mangrove forests and tropical forests, and cultural markets or archaeological ruins, depending on the field site. Potential locations for the course include Belize, Florida, Bermuda or other marine education centers located on islands such as Little Cayman in the Caribbean. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW; and BIOL-100, BIOL-101,or BIOL-110 FILA general education: experiential learning

BIOL-259 Travel Course in Natural History

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Explores the biology, geology, climate and natural history of geographic regions outside the Shenandoah Valley. Students examine the ecosystems, flora/fauna and conservation issues of the destination. This is a field course requiring travel, typically in Interterm. In the past the course has traveled to South Africa. Prerequisites: BIOL-100, BIOL-101, or BIOL-110

BIOL-301 Principles of Environmental Science

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Exploration of basic biological, chemical, geological, and physical processes at work on the earth, its lifeforms and its natural resources. The extent of human impact and the need for global awareness are emphasized, along with the need for application of rapidly expanding knowledge and technology toward solution of environmental problems. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or ENVR-101, or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as ENVR-301)

BIOL-305 Introduction to Human Anatomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the structure and function of the human body, examining the skeletal, muscular, circulatory, nervous, digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems. Lecture focuses on topics of physiology/function, histology, and their relation to anatomical structure, while the lab focuses on descriptive anatomy. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-110, or permission of instructor

BIOL-308 Domestic Animal Nutrition

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to nutrition and digestion in domestic animals, designed primarily for students in the pre-veterinary program. Topics include major nutrient classes and their functions in the body, feed classification and chemical analysis, feed processing, and nutrient requirements. Prerequisite: BIOL-111

BIOL-309 Genetics

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to both classical, Mendelian inheritance and molecular genetics with one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor; CHEM-161 recommended

BIOL-310 Histology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A systematic treatment of the microscopic structure of tissues and organs surveying the major organ systems of the body with a focus on cellular anatomy and physiology. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-110; BIOL-305 or BIOL-314 recommended Offered alternate years

BIOL-311 Animal Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to animal physiology - how animals function at cellular, systems and organismal levels. Knowledge that is acquired in this course serves as an excellent foundation for future postgraduate or professional studies in animal health & management. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of scientific thinking and writing are significant components of the course. Credit may not be received for both BIOL 311 and 314 Prerequisites: BIOL-110, BIOL-111, and MATH-120

BIOL-312W Wildlife Ecology and Management

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Explores the ecology and management of wildlife with an emphasis on North American mammals and birds. Topics include habitat quality, forestry, nutrition, disease, population dynamics and diversity. Also explores human dimensions in the North American stakeholder model of wildlife management. Lab emphasizes field techniques. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW; ENG-110 and BIOL-111 or permission of instructor Alternate years offered: 2020-2021 FILA general education: writing intensive (Cross-listed as ENVR-312W)

BIOL-314 Human Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the physiology of the human body including the physiology of enzymes and membranes, tissue physiology (nervous, muscular), and a detailed survey of the physiology of the major organ systems. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111; or BIOL-110 and BIOL-305 Credit may not be received for both BIOL 311 and 314

BIOL-316 Ornithology: the Biology of Birds

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviors that have produced an extraordinary biodiversity of bird species. The major groups of modern birds are introduced, and their origin and ecology are examined. Students learn to recognize local species in the field and examine them in the lab using the ornithology collections. Suitable for both biology majors and non-majors. Prerequisites: BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 Offered alternate years

BIOL-317 Biology of Mind

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of the contribution of neuroscience techniques to the understanding of sensation/perception, attention, learning, memory, language and consciousness. Lectures and papers involve an analysis of the interdisciplinary methods such as functional neuroimaging, electrophysiological methods, and the neurological impairments of brain-damaged patients. Prerequisites: PSY-101 and PSY-210 or BIOL-110, or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as PSY-317)

BIOL-319 Functional Neuroanatomy

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Comprehensive analysis of the organization of vertebrate nervous systems approached from a structural perspective with emphasis on the human central nervous system. Principles of organization are stressed. Laboratory component introduces students to neuroanatomical and neurohistological methods and techniques. Both the gross and fine microscopic anatomy of the nervous system are studied. Prerequisites: PSY-101 and PSY-210 or BIOL-110 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as PSY-319)

BIOL-320 Developmental Biology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Introduction to developmental biology with a focus on its fundamental aspects: embryogenesis, growth, cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. The study of theory is supplemented with hands-on observations of early development in animal embryos (salamander and/or mouse, or other animals). We also consider the impact of recent advances in developmental biology on our society by exploring the ethical, moral, and religious implications, as well as the legal issues that inevitably arise from work in this field. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and one additional BIOL course numbered 200 or above Offered alternate years

BIOL-321 Herpetology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

An introduction to the study of amphibians and reptiles. Lectures will focus on the origin and evolution of amphibians and reptiles, and on their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, anatomy, species identification, and common field techniques used to study these groups. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-322 Mammalogy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures will focus on phylogenetics, the origin and evolution of mammals and their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, species identification and common field techniques used to study mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-325 Molecular Biology of the Cell

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The molecular basis of cell structure and function. Topics include the chemistry, architecture and analysis of macromolecules, overview of thermodynamics and metabolism, enzymology, genetic processes and controls, recombinant DNA technology, and cell signaling mechanisms. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and CHEM-161, or permission of instructor

BIOL-330 Biostatistics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to fundamental statistical methods for biology students. Topics include descriptive statistics, experimental design and hypothesis testing. Material includes basic parametric and non-parametric statistical methods preparing students to analyze experiments testing multiple factors and multiple treatment groups. Two lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and MATH-110 Offered alternate years

BIOL-335 Summer Flora

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Summer

Survey of the vascular flora of the Shenandoah Valley and surrounding mountain areas. Field-based course that introduces students to the identification of plants in the field of their ecology. Plant collection and specimen preservation are also included. Prerequisites: BIOL-111

BIOL-340 Botany

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of the plant kingdom that will include topics ranging from plant anatomy, physiology, diversity and ecology. Students interested in ecology, forestry and wildlife biology will find this course particularly useful. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-350 Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Analysis of the distribution and abundance of organisms, population growth and regulation, and species interactions, as well as community and ecosystem processes. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111

BIOL-360 Environmental Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will provide a framework for studying how animals function in their native environments at different stages of their life cycles. Its scope is animal physiology blended with environmental science: principles of physiological mechanisms are examined from the perspective of physiological adaptation in a given environmental context, including specific adaptations to environmental extremes. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of critical scientific thinking and scientific writing are significant components of the course. Prerequisites: BIOL-110 and BIOL-111, and MATH-120 (Cross-listed as ENVR-360)

BIOL-365 Field Biology & Natural History

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Summer

Field-based course providing a broad overview of techniques and concepts involved in field biology (especially ecology) including basic scientific method and a variety of sampling techniques. Course content also has a strong emphasis on basic natural history as students learn about and experience a wide variety of organisms (e.g. plant, fungi, insects, fish, amphibians, and mammals), ecosystems (e.g. forests, grasslands, wetlands, ponds, and streams) and ecological interactions. Students will also discuss techniques for interpreting/teaching these biological concepts to others. Prerequisite: BIOL-111, or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as ENVR-356)

BIOL-370 Stormwater Management and Nonpoint Source Pollution

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

In this course, students will learn about stormwater management practices and their effectiveness, as well as regulatory efforts. In addition, rural and agricultural practices that impact water quality will be addressed. Presentations and field assignments will be part of the course so students see how local work affects watershed quality. Students will learn management techniques specific to urban and rural environments; as well as the economic, political and sociological implications of these solutions. Prerequisites: ENVR-101 or BIOL-111 (Cross-listed as ENVR-370)

BIOL-375 Applied Neuropsychology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Multidisciplinary course in neuroscience, with clinical ties to neurology, psychiatry and psychology, as well as basic scientific links to biology, computer science and cognitive studies. Examines how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific cognitive processes and overt behaviors through the use of neuropsychological testing methods. Topics include orientation, learning and memory, intelligence, language, visuoperception, and executive functioning. The administration, scoring and interpretation of various neuropsychological measures are discussed. Prerequisites: PSY-230 or MATH-140 or SOC-322 and PSY-210 or PSY-315 or PSY-317 or PSY-319 or BIOL 110 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as PSY-375)

BIOL-400 Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introductory survey of microbiology with an emphasis on bacteriology. The lecture component covers the structure, nutrition, metabolism, and genetics of microbes, medical microbiology, diagnostic techniques, microbial ecology, and industrial microbiology. The lab component includes biological safety, microscopy, culture techniques, media, staining, identification of unknown bacteria and an independent research project. Two lectures and two labs per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or permission of instructor; BIOL-325 recommended

BIOL-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics include antibiotic resistance; biodegradation; biodiversity; biofuels; bioremediation; extreme environments; geochemical cycles; methods for sampling; culture and analysis of environmental microorganisms; microbiology of air, water and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-401)

BIOL-402 Conversation Biology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of the methods used by the public and private sectors to manage the environment and natural resources. Primary emphasis on restoration ecology and conservation biology. Other topics addressed include environmental engineering (e.g. green chemistry and design of pollution control devices), economic considerations in conservation (e.g. conservation land easements and ecotourism), and government regulation. The lab provides students with experience applying standard methods of monitoring biological resources. The lab also provides an opportunity for students to hear talks from environmental experts and to travel to local sites where management activities are occurring. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-402)

BIOL-403 Pathogenic Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Exploration of major human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. Topics include host-parasite interactions, host defenses, pathogenic mechanisms, control of microorganisms, diagnosis and identification of infectious agents, antibiotic therapy, disease transmission and epidemiology. Class activities include discussion of medical case studies, literature analysis, identification of unknowns, and field trips. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-309 or permission of instructor; BIOL-325 and BIOL-400 strongly recommended

BIOL-410 Immunology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Development of immune responses through humoral and cell-mediated mechanisms transplantation and tumor immunology, hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmunity, and serology. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-325 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years

BIOL-412 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Comparative study of the major organ systems in vertebrate animals. Lectures examine topics such as the origin and adaptive evolution of vertebrate anatomy and the systematic relationships between vertebrate groups. The lab provides a detailed examination of vertebrate anatomy. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-420 Plant Taxonomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Broad survey of the diversity and classification of vascular plants. Students will learn to recognize common and important plant families as well as learn to identify local taxa. Traditional and modern methods of taxonomy and systematics are presented. Prerequisite: BIOL-111; BIOL-430 recommended Offered alternate years

BIOL-422 Biogeography

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduces the current and historical distributions of organisms in relation to all aspects of geography including climate, altitude, latitude, soils, etc. and how those distributions have changed over time. Combines information from physiology, ecology, and evolution. Field trips taken to illustrate local biogeographic patterns. Prerequisites: BIOL-111; BIOL-350 recommended Offered alternate years

BIOL-425 Neuroscience Methods

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Lecture and laboratory course exposing students to a variety of research techniques employed by neuroscientists including behavioral and cognitive procedures for measuring reward, memory, attention and emotion; neuroanatomical procedures for staining and examining brain tissues; physiological procedures for recording the electrical activity of nerve cells, as well as commonly used techniques used to explore brain-behavior relationships (EEG, lesions, electrical and chemical stimulation). Prerequisites: PSY-317 or PSY-319 and CHEM-125 or higher or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as PSY-425)

BIOL-430 Evolution

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of the mechanisms of biological evolution including mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, nonrandom mating, the genetic structure of species populations, the origin of new species and DNA evidence regarding relationships among species and higher taxa. Prerequisites: BIOL-309, MATH-130, and senior standing; or permission of instructor

BIOL-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. Special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest, and invasive species. Lab includes basic ecology and behavior but focuses heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisites: BIOL/ENVR-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-433)

BIOL-435 Freshwater Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to aquatic ecosystems (lakes, ponds, streams and wetlands). Students learn about the major chemical and physical processes that determine the function of freshwater systems. Students are introduced to the major groups of aquatic organisms (algae, vascular plants, invertebrates, fish and amphibians). Strong emphasis on the impacts that humans have on freshwater systems. The lab introduces the basic skills necessary for the study and management of fresh waters. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-435)

BIOL-440 Animal Behavior

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the theoretical framework and the methodology of animal behavior research. Students examine the causation, development, current function, and evolutionary history of behavior of invertebrates and vertebrates. Integrates concepts and principles from multiple disciplines to understand behaviors such as foraging and predation, mating systems, communication, parental care, social hierarchies, and territoriality. Students also review the history of the field of animal behavior and the contributions that animal behavior research can make to applied disciplines such as environmental conservation, biomedical research, and human psychology. Prerequisites: Any one of the following: BIOL-311, BIOL-314, or BIOL-350, PSY-210, or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-440)

BIOL-460 Special Topics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Studies from the areas of physiology, genetics, ecology, plant systematics, plant anatomy or plant physiology, and invertebrate zoology or entomology. Prerequisite: Permission of the department Offered on demand

BIOL-461 Independent Research

Credits: 1 Term Offered: All Terms

Open-ended research with a member of the biology faculty. A minimum of 40 hours of work in the library, laboratory, or field over the semester. Prerequisite: permission of instructor May be repeated as necessary for credit

BIOL-462 Independent Research

Credits: 2 Term Offered: All Terms

Open-ended research with a member of the biology faculty. A minimum of 80 hours of work in the library, laboratory, or field over the semester. Prerequisite: permission of instructor May be repeated as necessary for credit

BIOL-480 Internship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Provides an opportunity for a student to gain field experience in an area related to the student's concentration or career goals. Supervision of an intern is provided by an appropriate faculty member and by a staff member of the agency or business in which the student is an intern. A student who wishes to engage in an internship must consult with the appropriate faculty member at least eight weeks in advance of the start of the term in which the internship is to be completed. A description of the internship, signed by the student and the faculty sponsor, must be filed with the director of internships by the first day of the semester prior to the start of the internship. Approval of each application for an internship is made by the director of internships based upon policies and guidelines as approved by the Council on Education and the faculty. To be considered for an internship, a student must have junior or senior status and at least a 2.00 grade point average. Internships are graded on an S or U basis. A student may enroll in an internship program for 3 credits per semester, and internship credit may be earned in subsequent semesters subject to the limitations that no more than two internships may be pursued in any one agency or business and a maximum of 9 credits in internships may be applied toward graduation.

BIOL-490 Independent Study

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for no more than three independent studies or research projects.

BIOL-491 Research

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for not more than three independent studies or research projects.

BIOL-499 Honors Project

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

An honors project is one in which a student researches a subject, by examination of relevant literature or by experimentation or both; the student reports the results in an accurately documented and well-written paper or appropriate representation of the work. Whenever the study deals with the subject of an established course, the student is expected to go well beyond the usual work of the course in research and in assimilation of the results as revealed in the report. Juniors and seniors with a cumulative grade point average of 3.40 or above may register for an honors project. One desiring to pursue an honors project must submit a written description of his or her proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. Upon the completion of the honors project, the student must present an oral defense of his or her project. The final grade must include a satisfactory performance on the oral defense, assessed by a three-faculty member team. The project advisor will authorize the make-up of the oral defense team and will assign the final grade on the project. The honors project title will be noted on the student's transcript. It is the student's responsibility to provide a copy of the written paper or appropriate representation of the work to the library in compliance with specifications approved by the Council on Education. The library director arranges for binding and storage.