Academic Catalog

2019-2020 Undergraduate Academic Catalog

Environmental Science

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Majors

Environmental Science Major

Emphasis

Environmental Chemistry Emphasis

Freshwater Resources Emphasis

Wildlife Biology Emphasis

Concentrations

Environmental Science Concentration

The degree program in environmental science is an interdisciplinary major overseen by the Departments of Biology and Chemistry featuring both introductory and advanced courses. This major brings knowledge of basic sciences to work on the issues of use and abuse of natural resources and puts an emphasis on water as a resource.
 
The environmental science curricula takes advantage of rapidly expanding knowledge in ecology, molecular and cell biology, environmental chemistry and instrumentation to prepare students for the myriad career paths open to well-prepared environmental scientists. The concentration in environmental science allows students to pursue another major in tandem with their interest in the environment. In addition, the three emphases in environmental chemistry, freshwater resources and wildlife biology allow students to choose those areas to study in more depth. The environmental science major is closely tied to studies in biology, and students may major in both.
 
With a baccalaureate degree, graduates may pursue direct employment as high school earth science teachers, governmental field technicians, industrial or municipal water and wastewater technicians, field analysts for engineering and environmental consulting companies, or conservation technicians, just to name a few career paths. With graduate preparation, students can aspire to leadership positions in remediation, regulation and protection with local, state, federal or global governments, and as research scientists, environmental planners and environmental lawyers. Many graduate schools now offer cross-discipline opportunities for environmental science majors in health-related disciplines such as toxicology, epidemiology and public health.

Environmental Science Major

Degree Type Offered: B.S. Major

The bachelor of science degree in environmental science consists of 47–50 credits of courses in biology, chemistry and mathematics. The following courses are required (38 credits):

BIOL-110 Principles of Biology I

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to the biological sciences, covering biological chemistry, cell/tissue structure and function, genetics and microevolution. Intended for biology, health and human sciences, and environmental science majors. Three lectures and one lab per week. Corequisites: MATH-110 or MATH-118 Biology and environmental science majors should take MATH-110. Other students should consult with their advisor about which course to take. FILA general education: natural and physical sciences

BIOL-111 Principles of Biology II

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the biological sciences covering macroevolution (systematic, taxonomy, phylogenetics), ecology and biodiversity. Intended for biology and environmental science majors. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-110

BIOL-350 Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Analysis of the distribution and abundance of organisms, population growth and regulation, and species interactions, as well as community and ecosystem processes. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111

CHEM-161 General Chemistry I

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Principles of chemistry including stoichiometry, states of matter, atomic and molecular structure, chemical bonding, periodicity, and the kinetic molecular theory of gases. Three hours of lecture and one four hour lab per week. Prerequisites: MATH-110 or MATH-115 or MATH-118 FILA general education: natural and physical sciences Credit may not be received for both CHEM-125 and CHEM-161

CHEM-162 General Chemistry II

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Principles of chemistry including intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, equilibria, acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, kinetics, and solubility. Three hours of lecture and one four hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-161 or permission of instructor

MATH-130 Survey of Calculus

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Differential and integral calculus for the student who needs a working knowledge of the subject but does not plan to pursue more advanced study in mathematics. Includes theory and application of limits, derivatives, and integrals. Prerequisite: MATH-120 or satisfactory performance on placement test Credit may not be received for both MATH 130 and MATH 131

-or-

MATH-131 Calculus I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Study of differential calculus of a single variable. Applications of the derivative are made to curve sketching, max-min problems, and linear approximation, and I'Hopital's Rule. Also included are applications of the Intermediate Value Theorem and Mean Value Theorem. Credit may not be received for both MATH 130 and 131. Prerequisites: MATH-120 or satisfactory performance on placement test

MATH-140 Introduction to Statistics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Basic descriptive statistics, probability, hypothesis testing, correlation, and regression. Statistical computer software is used to analyze data. Prerequisites: MATH-118, MATH-110, MATH-115, or satisfactory performance on placement test

-or-

BIOL-330 Biostatistics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to fundamental statistical methods for biology students. Topics include descriptive statistics, experimental design and hypothesis testing. Material includes basic parametric and non-parametric statistical methods preparing students to analyze experiments testing multiple factors and multiple treatment groups. Two lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and MATH-110 Offered alternate years

ENVR-101 Introduction to Environmental Sciences

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces basic biological concepts and applies them to help students understand the causes and solutions of environmental problems. Addresses a wide variety of environmental issues including biodiversity loss, the effects of pollution on organisms and ecosystems, and global climate change. Special emphasis given to help students understand how scientific knowledge is developed and scientific information can be found, interpreted and applied by society. Three lectures and one laboratory per week. Corequisite: MATH-118 or MATH-110 FILA general education: natural and physical sciences

ENVR/BIOL-301 Principles of Environmental Science

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An exploration of basic biological, chemical, geological, and physical processes at work on the earth, its lifeforms, and its natural resources. The extent of human impact and the need for global awareness will be emphasized, along with the need for application of rapidly expanding knowledge and technology toward solution of environmental problems. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or ENVR-101, or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as BIOL-301)

ENVR-270 Chemistry of the Environment

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is designed to introduce students to the chemical principles underlying environmental issues, scientific literacy pertinent to the environment and scientific articles, and examine the implications of environmental policy. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-125 or CHEM-162

-or-

ENVR-320 Analytical Environmental Chemistry

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The chemistry and quantitative aspects of environmentally important cycles (C, N, O, P, S) in the context of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Major environmental issues are discussed such as acid rain, sewage treatment, ozone destruction, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and eutrophication. Laboratories involve sampling, quantitative detection and data analysis. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-162 Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

The remaining 9–12 credits must come from three additional ENVR, BIOL, or CHEM courses numbered above 300 from the following list:

BIOL-316 Ornithology: the Biology of Birds

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviors that have produced an extraordinary biodiversity of bird species. The major groups of modern birds are introduced, and their origin and ecology are examined. Students learn to recognize local species in the field and examine them in the lab using the ornithology collections. Suitable for both biology majors and non-majors. Prerequisites: BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 Offered alternate years

BIOL-321 Herpetology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

An introduction to the study of amphibians and reptiles. Lectures will focus on the origin and evolution of amphibians and reptiles, and on their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, anatomy, species identification, and common field techniques used to study these groups. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-322 Mammalogy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures will focus on phylogenetics, the origin and evolution of mammals and their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, species identification and common field techniques used to study mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-330 Biostatistics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to fundamental statistical methods for biology students. Topics include descriptive statistics, experimental design and hypothesis testing. Material includes basic parametric and non-parametric statistical methods preparing students to analyze experiments testing multiple factors and multiple treatment groups. Two lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and MATH-110 Offered alternate years

BIOL-335 Summer Flora

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Summer

Survey of the vascular flora of the Shenandoah Valley and surrounding mountain areas. Field-based course that introduces students to the identification of plants in the field of their ecology. Plant collection and specimen preservation are also included. Prerequisites: BIOL-111

BIOL-340 Botany

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of the plant kingdom that will include topics ranging from plant anatomy, physiology, diversity and ecology. Students interested in ecology, forestry and wildlife biology will find this course particularly useful. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-360 Environmental Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will provide a framework for studying how animals function in their native environments at different stages of their life cycles. Its scope is animal physiology blended with environmental science: principles of physiological mechanisms are examined from the perspective of physiological adaptation in a given environmental context, including specific adaptations to environmental extremes. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of critical scientific thinking and scientific writing are significant components of the course. Prerequisites: BIOL-110 and BIOL-111, and MATH-120 (Cross-listed as ENVR-360)

BIOL/ENVR-365 Field Biology & Natural History

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Summer

Field-based course providing a broad overview of techniques and concepts involved in field biology (especially ecology) including basic scientific method and a variety of sampling techniques. Course content also has a strong emphasis on basic natural history as students learn about and experience a wide variety of organisms (e.g. plant, fungi, insects, fish, amphibians, and mammals), ecosystems (e.g. forests, grasslands, wetlands, ponds, and streams) and ecological interactions. Students will also discuss techniques for interpreting/teaching these biological concepts to others. Prerequisite: BIOL-111, or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as ENVR-356)

BIOL-420 Plant Taxonomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Broad survey of the diversity and classification of vascular plants. Students will learn to recognize common and important plant families as well as learn to identify local taxa. Traditional and modern methods of taxonomy and systematics are presented. Prerequisite: BIOL-111; BIOL-430 recommended Offered alternate years

BIOL-422 Biogeography

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduces the current and historical distributions of organisms in relation to all aspects of geography including climate, altitude, latitude, soils, etc. and how those distributions have changed over time. Combines information from physiology, ecology, and evolution. Field trips taken to illustrate local biogeographic patterns. Prerequisites: BIOL-111; BIOL-350 recommended Offered alternate years

BIOL-440 Animal Behavior

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the theoretical framework and the methodology of animal behavior research. Students examine the causation, development, current function, and evolutionary history of behavior of invertebrates and vertebrates. Integrates concepts and principles from multiple disciplines to understand behaviors such as foraging and predation, mating systems, communication, parental care, social hierarchies, and territoriality. Students also review the history of the field of animal behavior and the contributions that animal behavior research can make to applied disciplines such as environmental conservation, biomedical research, and human psychology. Prerequisites: Any one of the following: BIOL-311, BIOL-314, or BIOL-350, PSY-210, or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-440)

ENVR-305 Natural Resource & Environmental Law

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course will provide an overview of federal and state laws that are aimed at the conservation of natural resources and/or protection of environmental quality. Major laws that will be covered include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act and others. Speakers from natural resource/environmental agencies such as the Va. Department of Environmental Quality, Va. Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and U.S. Forest Service will provide practical insights into the application and implementation of environmental policy. Alternate years: offered 2020-2021 Prerequisites: BIOL-100, 101 or 110

ENVR/BIOL-312W Wildlife Ecology and Management

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Explores the ecology and management of wildlife with an emphasis on North American mammals and birds. Topics include habitat quality, forestry, nutrition, disease, population dynamics and diversity. Also explores human dimensions in the North American stakeholder model of wildlife management. Lab emphasizes field techniques. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, ENG-110 and BIOL 111 or permission of instructor FILA general education: writing intensive Alternate years: offered 2020-2021 (Cross-listed as BIOL-312W)

ENVR-320 Analytical Environmental Chemistry

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The chemistry and quantitative aspects of environmentally important cycles (C, N, O, P, S) in the context of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Major environmental issues are discussed such as acid rain, sewage treatment, ozone destruction, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and eutrophication. Laboratories involve sampling, quantitative detection and data analysis. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-162 Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

ENVR-330 Introduction to Geographical Information Systems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

An introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS is a computerized system that allows users to collect, store, visualize and analyze locational/geospatial data. Students learn basic cartographic concepts and the use of common GIS software programs. The course focuses on environmental and biological applications of GIS while the technology also has many applications in earth sciences, urban planning, business, etc. Prerequisite: MATH-120 or permission of instructor

ENVR/BIOL-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics will include: antibiotic resistance, biodegradation, biodiversity, biofuels, bioremediation, extreme environments, geochemical cycles, methods for sampling, culture, and analysis of environmental microorganisms, microbiology of air, water, and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR/CHEM-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-401)

ENVR/BIOL-402 Conservation Biology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Survey of the methods used by the public and private sectors to manage our environment and natural resources. The primary emphasis will be on restoration ecology and conservation biology. Other topics that will be addressed will include environmental engineering (e.g. green chemistry and design of pollution control devices), economic considerations in conservation (e.g. conservation land easements and ecotourism), and government regulation. The lab will provide students with experience applying standard methods of monitoring biological resources. The lab will also provide an opportunity for students to hear talks from environmental experts and to travel to local sites where management activities are occurring. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-402)

ENVR/BIOL-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

A survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics will include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. There will be special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest and invasive species. Lab will include basic ecology and behavior but will focus heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisite: ENVR/BIOL-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-433)

ENVR/BIOL-435 Freshwater Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An introduction to aquatic ecosystems (lakes, ponds, streams and wetlands). Students will learn about the major chemical and physical processes that determine the function of freshwater systems. Students will be introduced to the major groups of aquatic organisms (algae, vascular plants, invertebrates and fish). Includes strong emphasis on the impacts that humans have on freshwater systems. The lab will introduce the basic skills necessary for the study and management of fresh waters. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-435)

GEOL-330 Soil and Hydrogeology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is a study of the environment on the Earth's surface, the boundary between the solid and liquid, and interactions between rock and water. This will include weathering and the formation of soil, and the flow of water at the surface and below ground level. Lab activities will include sampling and analysis of soil, surface water, and groundwater. Prerequisite: ENVR-301 Alternate years: offered 2020-2021

Three credits may be used from ENVR 490, ENVR 491, or ENVR 499 as electives while Internship (480) cannot be used. Students wishing to double major in biology and environmental science or in chemistry and environmental science may not overlap or double count the electives selected in the environmental science plan of major to the other major.

Environmental Chemistry Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

The environmental chemistry emphasis allows students majoring in environmental science or biology to pursue additional depth of preparation in a unique combination of courses. Students learn chemical techniques, analytics, sampling methods and instrumentation which are relevant to the understanding of environmental issues. Learning to find trace atmospheric, soil and water-borne constituents of either human or natural origin are critical to identifying potential pollutants in water, soil and the organic tissues of living organisms. This emphasis gives students distinctive training in chemical analysis of the
environment.
 
The following courses are required:

CHEM-305 Organic Chemistry I

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Structure, nomenclature, and properties of organic molecules. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-162 or permission of instructor Credit may not be received for both CHEM-250 and 305

-and-

CHEM-306 Organic Chemistry II

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Continuation of organic chemistry started in CHEM-305, including reaction mechanisms, thermodynamics, synthesis, and identification of organic molecules. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisite: CHEM-305

-or-

CHEM-310 Organic Chemistry II & Spectroscopy

Credits: 5 Term Offered: Spring Only

A continuation of organic chemistry started in CHEM-305, including a study of the interpretation of infrared spectroscopy, proton and carbon NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The lab will be an introduction to chemical research that includes research methods and techniques through a series of experiments. Prerequisite: CHEM-305 Credit may not be received for both CHEM-306 and CHEM-310, or for both CHEM-308 and CHEM-310

ENVR-320 Analytical Environmental Chemistry

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The chemistry and quantitative aspects of environmentally important cycles (C, N, O, P, S) in the context of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Major environmental issues are discussed such as acid rain, sewage treatment, ozone destruction, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and eutrophication. Laboratories involve sampling, quantitative detection and data analysis. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-162 Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

GEOL-330 Soil and Hydrogeology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is a study of the environment on the Earth's surface, the boundary between the solid and liquid, and interactions between rock and water. This will include weathering and the formation of soil, and the flow of water at the surface and below ground level. Lab activities will include sampling and analysis of soil, surface water, and groundwater. Prerequisite: ENVR-301 Alternate years: offered 2020-2021

Choose two:

CHEM-380 Instrumental Analysis

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Exposure to methods of quantitation, signal-to- noise enhancement, instrumental design and function, methods of spectroscopy, chromatography, electroanalytical analysis, and mass spectrometry. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisite: CHEM-250 or CHEM-305

ENVR/BIOL-360 Environmental Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will provide a framework for studying how animals function in their native environments at different stages of their life cycles. Its scope is animal physiology blended with environmental science: principles of physiological mechanisms are examined from the perspective of physiological adaptation in a given environmental context, including specific adaptations to environmental extremes. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of critical scientific thinking and scientific writing are significant components of the course. Prerequisites: BIOL-110 and BIOL-111, and MATH-120 (Cross-listed as BIOL-360)

ENVR-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics will include: antibiotic resistance, biodegradation, biodiversity, biofuels, bioremediation, extreme environments, geochemical cycles, methods for sampling, culture, and analysis of environmental microorganisms, microbiology of air, water, and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR/CHEM-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-401)

Freshwater Resources Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

The freshwater resources emphasis allows students majoring in environmental science or biology to focus on availability, ecology and protection of water resources. While water is a basic resource for all life, many human activities degrade water quality requiring specialists who are able to help maintain water quality. This emphasis allows students to delve into the issues of water quality from a biological, chemical and geological perspective.

ENVR-320 Analytical Environmental Chemistry

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The chemistry and quantitative aspects of environmentally important cycles (C, N, O, P, S) in the context of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Major environmental issues are discussed such as acid rain, sewage treatment, ozone destruction, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and eutrophication. Laboratories involve sampling, quantitative detection and data analysis. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-162 Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

ENVR/BIOL-435 Freshwater Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An introduction to aquatic ecosystems (lakes, ponds, streams and wetlands). Students will learn about the major chemical and physical processes that determine the function of freshwater systems. Students will be introduced to the major groups of aquatic organisms (algae, vascular plants, invertebrates and fish). Includes strong emphasis on the impacts that humans have on freshwater systems. The lab will introduce the basic skills necessary for the study and management of fresh waters. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-435)

Choose three:

ENVR/BIOL-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

A survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics will include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. There will be special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest and invasive species. Lab will include basic ecology and behavior but will focus heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisite: ENVR/BIOL-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-433)

ENVR/BIOL-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics will include: antibiotic resistance, biodegradation, biodiversity, biofuels, bioremediation, extreme environments, geochemical cycles, methods for sampling, culture, and analysis of environmental microorganisms, microbiology of air, water, and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR/CHEM-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-401)

ENVR/BIOL-370 Stormwater Management and Nonpoint Source Pollution

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

In this course, students will learn about stormwater management practices and their effectiveness, as well as regulatory efforts. In addition, rural and agricultural practices that impact water quality will be addressed. Presentations and field assignments will be part of the course so students see how local work affects watershed quality. Students will learn management techniques specific to urban and rural environments; as well as the economic, political and sociological implications of these solutions. Prerequisites: ENVR-101 or BIOL-111 (Cross-listed as BIOL-370)

ENVR-330 Introduction to Geographical Information Systems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

An introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS is a computerized system that allows users to collect, store, visualize and analyze locational/geospatial data. Students learn basic cartographic concepts and the use of common GIS software programs. The course focuses on environmental and biological applications of GIS while the technology also has many applications in earth sciences, urban planning, business, etc. Prerequisite: MATH-120 or permission of instructor

GEOL-330 Soil and Hydrogeology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is a study of the environment on the Earth's surface, the boundary between the solid and liquid, and interactions between rock and water. This will include weathering and the formation of soil, and the flow of water at the surface and below ground level. Lab activities will include sampling and analysis of soil, surface water, and groundwater. Prerequisite: ENVR-301 Alternate years: offered 2020-2021

Wildlife Biology Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

The wildlife biology emphasis allows students wanting the breadth of the biology or environmental science major to also focus in areas of wildlife biology and management. In this program, students take 11–17 additional credits on top of their major to specialize in wildlife. The program offers directed study in wildlife management and techniques, botany, zoology, and policy and ethics. This program along with the biology or environmental science major and the general education requirements supports students wishing to pursue careers with state and federal agencies, graduate degree programs in wildlife biology, as well as those who wish to pursue Wildlife Biologist Certification through the Wildlife Society.
 
Consists of 23 credits. The requirements are as follows:

Wildlife Management and Techniques

Take one course:

BIOL/ENVR-312W Wildlife Ecology and Management

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Explores the ecology and management of wildlife with an emphasis on North American mammals and birds. Topics include habitat quality, forestry, nutrition, disease, population dynamics and diversity. Also explores human dimensions in the North American stakeholder model of wildlife management. Lab emphasizes field techniques. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW; ENG-110 and BIOL-111 or permission of instructor Alternate years offered: 2020-2021 FILA general education: writing intensive (Cross-listed as ENVR-312W)

BIOL/ENVR-365 Field Biology & Natural History

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Summer

Field-based course providing a broad overview of techniques and concepts involved in field biology (especially ecology) including basic scientific method and a variety of sampling techniques. Course content also has a strong emphasis on basic natural history as students learn about and experience a wide variety of organisms (e.g. plant, fungi, insects, fish, amphibians, and mammals), ecosystems (e.g. forests, grasslands, wetlands, ponds, and streams) and ecological interactions. Students will also discuss techniques for interpreting/teaching these biological concepts to others. Prerequisite: BIOL-111, or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as ENVR-356)

BIOL/ENVR-402 Conversation Biology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of the methods used by the public and private sectors to manage the environment and natural resources. Primary emphasis on restoration ecology and conservation biology. Other topics addressed include environmental engineering (e.g. green chemistry and design of pollution control devices), economic considerations in conservation (e.g. conservation land easements and ecotourism), and government regulation. The lab provides students with experience applying standard methods of monitoring biological resources. The lab also provides an opportunity for students to hear talks from environmental experts and to travel to local sites where management activities are occurring. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-402)

Molecules, Anatomy and Physiology

Take one course:

BIOL-309 Genetics

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to both classical, Mendelian inheritance and molecular genetics with one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of instructor; CHEM-161 recommended

BIOL-311 Animal Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to animal physiology - how animals function at cellular, systems and organismal levels. Knowledge that is acquired in this course serves as an excellent foundation for future postgraduate or professional studies in animal health & management. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of scientific thinking and writing are significant components of the course. Credit may not be received for both BIOL 311 and 314 Prerequisites: BIOL-110, BIOL-111, and MATH-120

BIOL-325 Molecular Biology of the Cell

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The molecular basis of cell structure and function. Topics include the chemistry, architecture and analysis of macromolecules, overview of thermodynamics and metabolism, enzymology, genetic processes and controls, recombinant DNA technology, and cell signaling mechanisms. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 and CHEM-161, or permission of instructor

BIOL/ENVR-360 Environmental Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will provide a framework for studying how animals function in their native environments at different stages of their life cycles. Its scope is animal physiology blended with environmental science: principles of physiological mechanisms are examined from the perspective of physiological adaptation in a given environmental context, including specific adaptations to environmental extremes. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of critical scientific thinking and scientific writing are significant components of the course. Prerequisites: BIOL-110 and BIOL-111, and MATH-120 (Cross-listed as ENVR-360)

BIOL-412 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Comparative study of the major organ systems in vertebrate animals. Lectures examine topics such as the origin and adaptive evolution of vertebrate anatomy and the systematic relationships between vertebrate groups. The lab provides a detailed examination of vertebrate anatomy. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

Botany

Take one course:

BIOL-335 Summer Flora

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Summer

Survey of the vascular flora of the Shenandoah Valley and surrounding mountain areas. Field-based course that introduces students to the identification of plants in the field of their ecology. Plant collection and specimen preservation are also included. Prerequisites: BIOL-111

BIOL-340 Botany

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of the plant kingdom that will include topics ranging from plant anatomy, physiology, diversity and ecology. Students interested in ecology, forestry and wildlife biology will find this course particularly useful. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-420 Plant Taxonomy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Broad survey of the diversity and classification of vascular plants. Students will learn to recognize common and important plant families as well as learn to identify local taxa. Traditional and modern methods of taxonomy and systematics are presented. Prerequisite: BIOL-111; BIOL-430 recommended Offered alternate years

Zoology/Organisms

Take two courses:

BIOL-316 Ornithology: the Biology of Birds

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviors that have produced an extraordinary biodiversity of bird species. The major groups of modern birds are introduced, and their origin and ecology are examined. Students learn to recognize local species in the field and examine them in the lab using the ornithology collections. Suitable for both biology majors and non-majors. Prerequisites: BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 Offered alternate years

BIOL-321 Herpetology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

An introduction to the study of amphibians and reptiles. Lectures will focus on the origin and evolution of amphibians and reptiles, and on their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, anatomy, species identification, and common field techniques used to study these groups. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-322 Mammalogy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures will focus on phylogenetics, the origin and evolution of mammals and their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, species identification and common field techniques used to study mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL/ENVR-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. Special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest, and invasive species. Lab includes basic ecology and behavior but focuses heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisites: BIOL/ENVR-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-433)

BIOL-440 Animal Behavior

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the theoretical framework and the methodology of animal behavior research. Students examine the causation, development, current function, and evolutionary history of behavior of invertebrates and vertebrates. Integrates concepts and principles from multiple disciplines to understand behaviors such as foraging and predation, mating systems, communication, parental care, social hierarchies, and territoriality. Students also review the history of the field of animal behavior and the contributions that animal behavior research can make to applied disciplines such as environmental conservation, biomedical research, and human psychology. Prerequisites: Any one of the following: BIOL-311, BIOL-314, or BIOL-350, PSY-210, or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENVR-440)

Policy/Ethics

Take one course:

PHIL-235E Bioethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Confronts a number of modern scientific and ethical problems including abortion, genetic testing, genetically modified plants and animals, stem cells, gene therapy, research on humans, and physician-assisted suicide. Biology and biotechnology often confound our notions of right and wrong, and what ethical behavior is. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general Education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning Offered alternate years

PHIL-320E Professional Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Pressing issues confronting professionals in a technological era. Utilizing the insights of philosophical and religious ethics, the course examines the responsibilities of the professional person in business, medicine, law education, the ministry, and other fields. Problems considered include confidentiality, accountability, whistleblowing, governmental regulation, and ethical codes. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG 110 and junior or senior standing FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

ENVR-234E Wildlife Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

This course will explore the ethical implications of wildlife management, research and stewardship by applying ethical frameworks to issues surrounding wildlife. Possible topics include reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone and subsequent delisting, predator control, supplemental feeding, logging/wildlife conflicts, hunting culture, etc. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, ENG-110 and BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 or ENVR-101 FILA general education: ethical reasoning

ENVR-305 Natural Resource & Environmental Law

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course will provide an overview of federal and state laws that are aimed at the conservation of natural resources and/or protection of environmental quality. Major laws that will be covered include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act and others. Speakers from natural resource/environmental agencies such as the Va. Department of Environmental Quality, Va. Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and U.S. Forest Service will provide practical insights into the application and implementation of environmental policy. Alternate years: offered 2020-2021 Prerequisites: BIOL-100, 101 or 110

Environmental Science Concentration

Degree Type Offered: Concentration

The concentration in environmental science allows students in majors across any discipline to examine critically the issues around human use and abuse of natural resources.

The following courses are required:

ENVR-101 Introduction to Environmental Sciences

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces basic biological concepts and applies them to help students understand the causes and solutions of environmental problems. Addresses a wide variety of environmental issues including biodiversity loss, the effects of pollution on organisms and ecosystems, and global climate change. Special emphasis given to help students understand how scientific knowledge is developed and scientific information can be found, interpreted and applied by society. Three lectures and one laboratory per week. Corequisite: MATH-118 or MATH-110 FILA general education: natural and physical sciences

ENVR/BIOL-301 Principles of Environmental Science

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An exploration of basic biological, chemical, geological, and physical processes at work on the earth, its lifeforms, and its natural resources. The extent of human impact and the need for global awareness will be emphasized, along with the need for application of rapidly expanding knowledge and technology toward solution of environmental problems. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or ENVR-101, or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as BIOL-301)

Choose two from the following list:

ENVR-270 Chemistry of the Environment

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is designed to introduce students to the chemical principles underlying environmental issues, scientific literacy pertinent to the environment and scientific articles, and examine the implications of environmental policy. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-125 or CHEM-162

ENVR-320 Analytical Environmental Chemistry

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The chemistry and quantitative aspects of environmentally important cycles (C, N, O, P, S) in the context of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Major environmental issues are discussed such as acid rain, sewage treatment, ozone destruction, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and eutrophication. Laboratories involve sampling, quantitative detection and data analysis. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-162 Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

GEOL-330 Soil and Hydrogeology

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is a study of the environment on the Earth's surface, the boundary between the solid and liquid, and interactions between rock and water. This will include weathering and the formation of soil, and the flow of water at the surface and below ground level. Lab activities will include sampling and analysis of soil, surface water, and groundwater. Prerequisite: ENVR-301 Alternate years: offered 2020-2021

ENVR-305 Natural Resource & Environmental Law

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course will provide an overview of federal and state laws that are aimed at the conservation of natural resources and/or protection of environmental quality. Major laws that will be covered include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act and others. Speakers from natural resource/environmental agencies such as the Va. Department of Environmental Quality, Va. Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and U.S. Forest Service will provide practical insights into the application and implementation of environmental policy. Alternate years: offered 2020-2021 Prerequisites: BIOL-100, 101 or 110

ENVR/BIOL-312W Wildlife Ecology and Management

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Explores the ecology and management of wildlife with an emphasis on North American mammals and birds. Topics include habitat quality, forestry, nutrition, disease, population dynamics and diversity. Also explores human dimensions in the North American stakeholder model of wildlife management. Lab emphasizes field techniques. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, ENG-110 and BIOL 111 or permission of instructor FILA general education: writing intensive Alternate years: offered 2020-2021 (Cross-listed as BIOL-312W)

BIOL-316 Ornithology: the Biology of Birds

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviors that have produced an extraordinary biodiversity of bird species. The major groups of modern birds are introduced, and their origin and ecology are examined. Students learn to recognize local species in the field and examine them in the lab using the ornithology collections. Suitable for both biology majors and non-majors. Prerequisites: BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 Offered alternate years

BIOL-321 Herpetology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

An introduction to the study of amphibians and reptiles. Lectures will focus on the origin and evolution of amphibians and reptiles, and on their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, anatomy, species identification, and common field techniques used to study these groups. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-322 Mammalogy

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of mammals. Lectures will focus on phylogenetics, the origin and evolution of mammals and their biology, ecology and conservation. Lab will emphasize taxonomy, species identification and common field techniques used to study mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL-335 Summer Flora

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Summer

Survey of the vascular flora of the Shenandoah Valley and surrounding mountain areas. Field-based course that introduces students to the identification of plants in the field of their ecology. Plant collection and specimen preservation are also included. Prerequisites: BIOL-111

BIOL-340 Botany

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive survey of the plant kingdom that will include topics ranging from plant anatomy, physiology, diversity and ecology. Students interested in ecology, forestry and wildlife biology will find this course particularly useful. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 Offered alternate years

BIOL/ENVR-360 Environmental Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will provide a framework for studying how animals function in their native environments at different stages of their life cycles. Its scope is animal physiology blended with environmental science: principles of physiological mechanisms are examined from the perspective of physiological adaptation in a given environmental context, including specific adaptations to environmental extremes. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of critical scientific thinking and scientific writing are significant components of the course. Prerequisites: BIOL-110 and BIOL-111, and MATH-120 (Cross-listed as ENVR-360)

ENVR-330 Introduction to Geographical Information Systems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

An introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS is a computerized system that allows users to collect, store, visualize and analyze locational/geospatial data. Students learn basic cartographic concepts and the use of common GIS software programs. The course focuses on environmental and biological applications of GIS while the technology also has many applications in earth sciences, urban planning, business, etc. Prerequisite: MATH-120 or permission of instructor

ENVR/BIOL-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics will include: antibiotic resistance, biodegradation, biodiversity, biofuels, bioremediation, extreme environments, geochemical cycles, methods for sampling, culture, and analysis of environmental microorganisms, microbiology of air, water, and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR/CHEM-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-401)

ENVR-402 Conservation Biology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Survey of the methods used by the public and private sectors to manage our environment and natural resources. The primary emphasis will be on restoration ecology and conservation biology. Other topics that will be addressed will include environmental engineering (e.g. green chemistry and design of pollution control devices), economic considerations in conservation (e.g. conservation land easements and ecotourism), and government regulation. The lab will provide students with experience applying standard methods of monitoring biological resources. The lab will also provide an opportunity for students to hear talks from environmental experts and to travel to local sites where management activities are occurring. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-402)

ENVR/BIOL-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

A survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics will include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. There will be special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest and invasive species. Lab will include basic ecology and behavior but will focus heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisite: ENVR/BIOL-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-433)

ENVR/BIOL-435 Freshwater Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An introduction to aquatic ecosystems (lakes, ponds, streams and wetlands). Students will learn about the major chemical and physical processes that determine the function of freshwater systems. Students will be introduced to the major groups of aquatic organisms (algae, vascular plants, invertebrates and fish). Includes strong emphasis on the impacts that humans have on freshwater systems. The lab will introduce the basic skills necessary for the study and management of fresh waters. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-435)

Students may not double count the courses in the elective list for the environmental science concentration on any other plan of major or minor.

The Smithsonian-Mason Semester for Conservation Studies

Bridgewater College is a member institution of the Smithsonian-Mason Semester which is run by George Mason University out of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) in Front Royal, Va. In this program, students live on the SCBI campus (a world-class conservation research facility) and learn about the theory and application of conservation biology (including the social, political and economic dimensions). Students participate in one of two 16 credit hour programs: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation or Conservation, Biodiversity and Society (for any student interested in conservation). Interested students should visit the program’s website (smconservation.gmu.edu/programs/undergraduate) and contact the Department of Biology.
Both programs are appropriate for juniors and seniors. There are no specific prerequisite classes for Conservation, Biodiversity and Society. That program is open to all majors. The Wildlife Ecology and Conservation semester has Ecology (BIOL-350) as a prerequisite.

Courses

ENVR-101 Introduction to Environmental Sciences

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces basic biological concepts and applies them to help students understand the causes and solutions of environmental problems. Addresses a wide variety of environmental issues including biodiversity loss, the effects of pollution on organisms and ecosystems, and global climate change. Special emphasis given to help students understand how scientific knowledge is developed and scientific information can be found, interpreted and applied by society. Three lectures and one laboratory per week. Corequisite: MATH-118 or MATH-110 FILA general education: natural and physical sciences

ENVR-234E Wildlife Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

This course will explore the ethical implications of wildlife management, research and stewardship by applying ethical frameworks to issues surrounding wildlife. Possible topics include reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone and subsequent delisting, predator control, supplemental feeding, logging/wildlife conflicts, hunting culture, etc. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, ENG-110 and BIOL-100 or BIOL-110 or ENVR-101 FILA general education: ethical reasoning

ENVR-256 Conservation Biology of Florida

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Due to its location, geology, and climate, Florida supports a variety of unique species and ecosystems. It also supports a rapidly growing human population and diverse economic activities. This interterm course will provide an overview of environmental and conservation issues that have arisen as human activity has increased (including water quality, decline of biodiversity, invasive species and wetland loss/restoration). The class will travel to Florida where they will learn about environmental/conservation problems and solutions. In this course, students examine the science as well as the economic, political and social aspects of the issues. Prerequisites: BIOL-100, 101 or 110, or permission of instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-256)

ENVR-270 Chemistry of the Environment

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is designed to introduce students to the chemical principles underlying environmental issues, scientific literacy pertinent to the environment and scientific articles, and examine the implications of environmental policy. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-125 or CHEM-162

ENVR-301 Principles of Environmental Science

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An exploration of basic biological, chemical, geological, and physical processes at work on the earth, its lifeforms, and its natural resources. The extent of human impact and the need for global awareness will be emphasized, along with the need for application of rapidly expanding knowledge and technology toward solution of environmental problems. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or ENVR-101, or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as BIOL-301)

ENVR-305 Natural Resource & Environmental Law

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course will provide an overview of federal and state laws that are aimed at the conservation of natural resources and/or protection of environmental quality. Major laws that will be covered include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act and others. Speakers from natural resource/environmental agencies such as the Va. Department of Environmental Quality, Va. Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and U.S. Forest Service will provide practical insights into the application and implementation of environmental policy. Alternate years: offered 2020-2021 Prerequisites: BIOL-100, 101 or 110

ENVR-312W Wildlife Ecology and Management

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Explores the ecology and management of wildlife with an emphasis on North American mammals and birds. Topics include habitat quality, forestry, nutrition, disease, population dynamics and diversity. Also explores human dimensions in the North American stakeholder model of wildlife management. Lab emphasizes field techniques. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, ENG-110 and BIOL 111 or permission of instructor FILA general education: writing intensive Alternate years: offered 2020-2021 (Cross-listed as BIOL-312W)

ENVR-320 Analytical Environmental Chemistry

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

The chemistry and quantitative aspects of environmentally important cycles (C, N, O, P, S) in the context of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Major environmental issues are discussed such as acid rain, sewage treatment, ozone destruction, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and eutrophication. Laboratories involve sampling, quantitative detection and data analysis. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour lab per week. Prerequisites: CHEM-162 Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

ENVR-324 Alternative Energy and Scandinavia

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Study of how Scandinavian societies have been shaped by energy resources and energy production. Alternative modes of energy production will be studied and a contrast is made between the national energy policies of Iceland and Denmark compared to the United States. Special emphasis will be given to the emerging hydrogen economy in Iceland. One week on campus and two weeks off campus in Iceland and Denmark.

ENVR-330 Introduction to Geographical Information Systems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

An introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS is a computerized system that allows users to collect, store, visualize and analyze locational/geospatial data. Students learn basic cartographic concepts and the use of common GIS software programs. The course focuses on environmental and biological applications of GIS while the technology also has many applications in earth sciences, urban planning, business, etc. Prerequisite: MATH-120 or permission of instructor

ENVR-360 Environmental Physiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will provide a framework for studying how animals function in their native environments at different stages of their life cycles. Its scope is animal physiology blended with environmental science: principles of physiological mechanisms are examined from the perspective of physiological adaptation in a given environmental context, including specific adaptations to environmental extremes. Course structure: active learning lectures and applied learning labs. Development of critical scientific thinking and scientific writing are significant components of the course. Prerequisites: BIOL-110 and BIOL-111, and MATH-120 (Cross-listed as BIOL-360)

ENVR-365 Field Biology & Natural History

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Summer

This primarily field-based course will provide a broad overview of techniques and concepts involved in field biology (especially ecology,) including basic scientific method and a variety of sampling techniques. Course content also has a strong emphasis on basic natural history as students learn about and experience a wide variety of organisms (e.g. plant, fungi, insects, fish, amphibians, and mammals), ecosystems (e.g. forests, grasslands, wetlands, ponds, and streams) and ecological interactions. Students will also discuss techniques for interpreting/teaching these biological concepts to others. Prerequisites: BIOL-111, or permission of instructor (Cross-listed as BIOL-356)

ENVR-370 Stormwater Management and Nonpoint Source Pollution

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

In this course, students will learn about stormwater management practices and their effectiveness, as well as regulatory efforts. In addition, rural and agricultural practices that impact water quality will be addressed. Presentations and field assignments will be part of the course so students see how local work affects watershed quality. Students will learn management techniques specific to urban and rural environments; as well as the economic, political and sociological implications of these solutions. Prerequisites: ENVR-101 or BIOL-111 (Cross-listed as BIOL-370)

ENVR-401 Environmental Microbiology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An exploration of how microorganisms interact with their environment and the implications of these interactions for humans. Specific topics will include: antibiotic resistance, biodegradation, biodiversity, biofuels, bioremediation, extreme environments, geochemical cycles, methods for sampling, culture, and analysis of environmental microorganisms, microbiology of air, water, and soil; environmental pathogens; and microbiological treatment of sewage and water. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL-309 or ENVR/CHEM-320 Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-401)

ENVR-402 Conservation Biology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

Survey of the methods used by the public and private sectors to manage our environment and natural resources. The primary emphasis will be on restoration ecology and conservation biology. Other topics that will be addressed will include environmental engineering (e.g. green chemistry and design of pollution control devices), economic considerations in conservation (e.g. conservation land easements and ecotourism), and government regulation. The lab will provide students with experience applying standard methods of monitoring biological resources. The lab will also provide an opportunity for students to hear talks from environmental experts and to travel to local sites where management activities are occurring. Prerequisites: BIOL-111 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-402)

ENVR-433 Biology & Management of Fishes

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

A survey of diversity of fish (with an emphasis on freshwater fish of North America). Topics will include taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology. There will be special emphasis on management of fish populations and diversity in the face of environmental threats including pollution, habitat alteration, overharvest and invasive species. Lab will include basic ecology and behavior but will focus heavily on common fisheries' techniques. Prerequisite: ENVR/BIOL-301 or BIOL-350 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-433)

ENVR-435 Freshwater Ecology

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Fall Only

An introduction to aquatic ecosystems (lakes, ponds, streams and wetlands). Students will learn about the major chemical and physical processes that determine the function of freshwater systems. Students will be introduced to the major groups of aquatic organisms (algae, vascular plants, invertebrates and fish). Includes strong emphasis on the impacts that humans have on freshwater systems. The lab will introduce the basic skills necessary for the study and management of fresh waters. Prerequisite: BIOL-111 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as BIOL-435)

ENVR-461 Independent Research

Credits: 1 Term Offered: All Terms

Open-ended research with a member of the biology faculty, with an environmental science emphasis. A minimum of 40 hours of work in the library, laboratory or field over the semester. Prerequisites: Permission of instructor May be repeated for credit

ENVR-462 Independent Research

Credits: 2 Term Offered: All Terms

Open-ended research with a member of the biology faculty, with an environmental science emphasis. A minimum of 80 hours of work in the library, laboratory or field over the semester. Prerequisites: Permission of instructor May be repeated for credit

ENVR-480 Internship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Provides an opportunity for a student to gain field experience in an area related to the student's concentration or career goals. Supervision of an intern is provided by an appropriate faculty member and by a staff member of the agency or business in which the student is an intern. A student who wishes to engage in an internship must consult with the appropriate faculty member at least eight weeks in advance of the start of the term in which the internship is to be completed. A description of the internship, signed by the student and the faculty sponsor, must be filed with the director of internships by the first day of the semester prior to the start of the internship. Approval of each application for an internship is made by the director of internships based upon policies and guidelines as approved by the Council on Education and the faculty. To be considered for an internship, a student must have junior or senior status and at least a 2.00 grade point average. Internships are graded on an S or U basis. A student may enroll in an internship program for 3 credits per semester, and internship credit may be earned in subsequent semesters subject to the limitations that no more than two internships may be pursued in any one agency or business and a maximum of 9 credits in internships may be applied toward graduation.

ENVR-490 Independent Study

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for no more than three independent studies or research projects.

ENVR-491 Research

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for not more than three independent studies or research projects.

ENVR-499 Honors Project

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

An honors project is one in which a student researches a subject, by examination of relevant literature or by experimentation or both; the student reports the results in an accurately documented and well-written paper or appropriate representation of the work. Whenever the study deals with the subject of an established course, the student is expected to go well beyond the usual work of the course in research and in assimilation of the results as revealed in the report. Juniors and seniors with a cumulative grade point average of 3.40 or above may register for an honors project. One desiring to pursue an honors project must submit a written description of his or her proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. Upon the completion of the honors project, the student must present an oral defense of his or her project. The final grade must include a satisfactory performance on the oral defense, assessed by a three-faculty member team. The project advisor will authorize the make-up of the oral defense team and will assign the final grade on the project. The honors project title will be noted on the student's transcript. It is the student's responsibility to provide a copy of the written paper or appropriate representation of the work to the library in compliance with specifications approved by the Council on Education. The library director arranges for binding and storage.