Academic Catalog

2019-2020 Undergraduate Academic Catalog

Philosophy & Religion

App View

Majors

Philosophy and Religion Major

Minors

Philosophy and Religion Minor

Peace Studies Minor

Concentrations

Gender Studies Concentration

Interfaith Studies Concentration

Pre-Professional Programs

Christian Ministry

The Department of Philosophy and Religion focuses on living the questions and engaging the world. The “big questions” of philosophy have shaped people’s understanding of themselves, reality and meaning in life. Religion explores how these same questions relate to individual and communal beliefs, practices, and spiritual commitments in past and present cultures. Study of philosophy and religion develops skills of clear, logical thinking and writing, critical analysis of complex problems, ethical reasoning and understanding different worldviews. These skills are highly valued by employers, particularly in law, policy and humanitarian professions.
 
Majoring in philosophy and religion also prepares students for graduate programs in philosophy or religion, as well as professional graduate degrees in Christian ministry, mediation or counseling.
 
Students may choose to focus their studies on philosophies of being and knowing, world religions, ethics, interfaith studies or Christian studies.
 
Philosophy of Being and Knowing focuses on the nature of reality and of knowledge, including the possibilities and limits of knowing.
 
World Religions focuses on a variety of religious traditions, including their beliefs, practices, texts, ethics, and historical and social contexts.
 
Study in philosophies of being and knowing or in world religions prepare students for careers in legislative and policy, humanitarian, law or academic fields.
 
Ethics focuses on theories and history of ideas of the right and the good, and applications of those concepts to different contemporary issues. Study in ethics prepares students for careers in law, humanitarian, policy, academic or ethics fields.
 
Interfaith Studies focuses on theories and practices that promote peace between the religions of the world. Interfaith Studies prepares students for humanitarian or counseling/mediation careers.
 
Christian Studies focuses on history of the ideas and practices of Christianity, especially in relation to topics in history, culture and ethics. Christian Studies prepares students for service, careers and graduate study in the history, texts, theology and practices of Christianity.
 
Pre-Professional Programs  The philosophy and religion major with a focus on Christian Studies (see previous) qualifies one as an applicant to a seminary or university divinity school to pursue a master of arts or a master of divinity degree, a prerequisite for ordination to the ministry in most Christian denominations.

Philosophy and Religion Major

Degree Type Offered: B.A. Major

Requires the bachelor of arts degree. Consists of 33 credits including the following courses:

PHIL-210 Philosophical Questions

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines fundamental themes of philosophy such as: the possibility and nature of knowledge; whether or not human beings are free; arguments for and against the existence of God; the nature of good and evil; what makes a good life; and mortality. Corequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion

REL-210X Study of Religious Traditions

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

The objective of this course is to introduce to 1) the variety of intellectual disciplines by means of which religions may be studied and 2) the basic concepts that make up a religious worldview, including concepts of the sacred, religious symbolism, myth, doctrine, ritual, soteriology, and ethics. A central question of the course is how and to what degree these concepts and practices cross over between world religions, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Chinese traditions, Japanese traditions, and secular humanism. The professor will acquaint students with a variety of methodologies within the field of Religious Studies, from theological, literary, and historical to anthropological, sociological, and phenomenological approaches. A handful of films will be screened that illustrate particular concepts, practices, and struggles within several religious traditions. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and experiential learning

PHIL-310 Logic

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Skills of reasoning for solving problems found in ordinary language, deductive and inductive formats, and in common fallacies. A brief introduction to symbolic logic, scientific method, and probability. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion

PHIL-331EW Ancient and Medieval Western Philosophy

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Traces the history of Western thought from its foundations with the Presocratic thinkers, Plato, and Aristotle, to its offspring in Hellenistic thought, and down to Medieval thought. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion, ethical reasoning and writing intensive Offered alternate years

PHIL/REL-430 Senior Seminar

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Intensive study, research, and discussion in a field of current interest in philosophy and religion. Required senior seminar for Philosophy and Religion majors. Prerequisite: Minimum of 18 credit hours of course work in the Department of Philosophy and Religion (Cross-listed as REL-430)

Choose one course from the following:

REL-220 New Testament

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Christian beginnings with emphasis upon the literature and thought of the early Christian community. Introduces information and skills necessary for examining the New Testament documents and their relevance in the history of Western culture. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion

REL-326 Readings in the Hebrew Scripture

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

History, literature and faith of the Hebrew people as revealed in the study of specific topics in Hebrew Scriptures. Designated material in the Hebrew Bible will be examined through the insights of literary analysis, archaeology, anthropology and historical criticism with special emphasis on interpretive methods. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion

Choose one course from the following:

PHIL-318E Philosophical Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines significant ethical theories such as those based upon duty, the results of actions, virtue, the benefit of actions to self and the benefit of actions to others. We will examine primary texts from thinkers such as Aristotle, Mill, Kant and Nietzsche. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy and religion and ethical reasoning

REL-318E Religious Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A critical survey of ethical perspectives ad issues in the thought and practices of several religious traditions. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

Choose one course from the following:

REL-340 Religions of the Near East

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Major living religions of the Near East stressing a sympathetic understanding of the illumination, which is provided the adherents of each for daily living, as well as some of the cultural expressions of each in those societies where they flourish. Religions studied include Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: world cultures Offered alternate years

REL-350 Religions of the Far East

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Major living religions of the Far East stressing a sympathetic understanding of the illumination, which is provided the adherents of each for daily living, as well as some of the cultural expressions of each in those societies where they flourish. Religions studied include Hinduism, Buddhism, and native Chinese religion. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: world cultures Offered alternate years

And nine additional credits approved by the department and in consultation with the academic advisor.

Philosophy and Religion Minor

Degree Type Offered: Minor

Consists of 18 credit hours selected from philosophy and religion courses in consultation with the advisor in the minor and based on the student’s interests, graduate school plans or professional plans.

Peace Studies Minor

Degree Type Offered: Minor

Addresses the continuing need for effective alternatives to structures of conflict and violence. Prepares students for careers in conflict transformation, mediation or humanitarian work. Consists of 18 credit hours including the following courses:

REL-335E Christian Perspectives on Violence and Peace

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Biblical, historical, and social attitudes toward violence and peace including a study of political, social, and scientific factors that affect violence at the interpersonal, and through war at the international levels of human and interfaith experience. A seminar approach is used. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

REL-420EW Christian Social Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Personal and social ethical issues from the perspective of contemporary writings of Christian ethicists. Normative and contextual approaches. An examination of the relationship between religion and culture. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion, ethical reasoning and writing intensive Offered on demand

-or-

REL-318E Religious Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A critical survey of ethical perspectives ad issues in the thought and practices of several religious traditions. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

SOC/PHIL-367 Conflict Trans

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A broad introduction to the field, familiarizes students with conflict and practical approaches to its transformation. Personal communication and conflict styles, negotiation skills, interpersonal mediation and facilitation of group decision-making and problem-solving strategies are examined. Participation in discussions, exercises, analyses, role-plays and simulations frame the course. In addition to the regularly scheduled meeting times, one Saturday session is included. Prerequisite: SOC-101

And three of the following courses:

PHIL-225E Contemporary Moral and Political Problems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examines pressing moral and philosophical questions that have become major political issues of our day. Problems considered include abortion, sexism, racism, drugs, privacy and censorship, civil disobedience, and others of interest to the group. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

PHIL-490 Independent Study

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for no more than three independent studies or research projects.

REL/HIST-317 History of the Christian Church

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to Christianity, surveying all three historical traditions: Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant. Special emphasis on social and political structures of the church, and issues in theology and ethics from the Apostolic Age to the resent. Prerequisites: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion (Cross-listed as HIST-317)

REL-319 History of the Church of the Brethren

Credits: 3 Term Offered:

From its beginning to the present day. Emphasis upon understanding the church today in light of its historical development with a special focus on Brethren doctrines and practices. Prerequisite: ENG-110 Offered on demand

REL-340 Religions of the Near East

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Major living religions of the Near East stressing a sympathetic understanding of the illumination, which is provided the adherents of each for daily living, as well as some of the cultural expressions of each in those societies where they flourish. Religions studied include Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: world cultures Offered alternate years

REL-400 Peace Studies Seminar

Credits: 3 Term Offered:

A brief history of peace studies in the United States, current issues in peace studies, studies in the philosophy of civilization, the roles of violence and nonviolence in protest and revolution, and the roles of church and state in peacemaking. Prerequisite: ENG-110 Offered on demand

REL-490 Independent Study

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for no more than three independent studies or research projects.

PSCI-335W Peace, War and World Politics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examines human understanding of the institution of warfare and alternative means of managing large-scale conflict. Also studies the concept of peace, including the personal and policy implications of the various definitions of the term. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: global dynamics and writing intensive Offered alternate years

PSCI-356 United States Foreign Policy

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examines the continuity and changes in the contexts, structures, processes, actors and issues of U.S. foreign policy in the 20th and 21st centuries. Offered alternate years

PSCI-420W International Law & Organization

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Explores the nature of international law and its similarities and differences with domestic law. Examines the institutions, rules, and organizations that provide the context for global interactions in an increasingly globalizing world. Case studies include issues such as human rights, the International Criminal Court, the World Trade Organization and the World Bank, and International Monetary Fund. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: writing intensive Offered alternate years

SOC-361 Development and Underdevelopment in the Modern World

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Dilemmas, tensions, and theoretical and policy issues related to the position of Third World countries in the modern world. Questions of urbanization, industrialization, modernization, westernization, and distribution of economic resources are discussed. Various theories of development and underdevelopment are critically examined. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and SOC-101 FILA general education: global dynamics

Courses listed on a student’s plan of the major in philosophy and religion are excluded.

Gender Studies Concentration

Degree Type Offered: Concentration

An interdisciplinary program, consisting of 12 credit hours, designed for students in any major to understand more clearly the role that social constructions of gender shape histories, cultures, institutions and identities. Courses allow students to develop critical analytic skills in examining gender through the lenses of communication studies, history, politics, philosophy, psychology and sociology. Excellent preparation for careers in law, policy, humanitarian or ethics fields.

Students must complete any four of the following courses:

COMM-335 Communicating Sex and Gender

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Students will develop theoretical and practical understandings of the role of sex and gender in verbal and nonverbal communication, friendships, families, romantic relationships and professional relationships. This course also examines the issues of technology, health, power and violence as they related to sex and gender. Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

COMM-340 Representations of Gender, Race & Class

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines the media's role in creating and re-creating our understanding of gender, race, and class. Includes a historical perspective, and traces how these representations have changed over time, the forces that have affected representations of gender, race and class, and the current state of their representation in the media. A field trip to at least one museum in Washington, D.C. is planned, depending upon exhibits available at the time (e.g. National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian's American History Museum). Alternate years: offered 2020-2021

FCS/SOC-368W Sociology of the Family

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examination of the human family historically and comparatively in various cultures with major emphasis placed upon the modern American family. Included are such topics as the diversity of family structures, the social construction of emotions, gender expectations and roles, parenting, the life cycle, and family tensions. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, SOC-101 and ENG-110 FILA general education: writing intensive (Cross-listed as FCS-368W)

HIST-335 Women's History in Asia

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores women's histories in Asia. Stresses the construction of gender norms and their evolution over time and encourages comparison of women's lives and experiences across various cultural contexts in Asia. Topics include women's political rights and participation, women's education and literacy, women's sexuality and reproduction, and women's work. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: global dynamics Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

PSCI-332 Women & Politics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Explores the role of women in American and global politics in order to understand the role of identity, institutions and social movements in democracy. Topics include women's influence on the development of the modern American welfare state, feminism, public policy issues of special importance to women, and social movement strategies. Offered alternate years

PHIL-322EW Ethics and Identity

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduces ethical issues related to gender, race, and class. Surveys the development of identity-related critiques of traditional ethical theories and examines how the concept of "the good life" is related to identity. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 and SOC-101 or PSCI/SOC-205 FILA general education: philosophy or religion, ethical reasoning and writing intensive Offered alternate years

PHIL/REL-485X Gender Studies Practicum

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

A supervised practicum experience in a public or private organization that addresses women's and gender-related issues. The practicum requires 120 hours of field participation over the semester, weekly journals, and a final substantive, scholarly paper. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, at least one course from the gender studies concentration, sophomore standing, and permission of instructor (Cross-listed as REL-485X)

PSY-380 Human Sexuality

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Overview of the psychological, social and biological aspects of sexuality that will be of use for communicating with romantic partners, doctors and family members. Topics include: sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted diseases, methods of contraception, prenatal sexual differentiation, sex research, attraction and love, sexual orientation and sexual dysfunction, and sexual ethics. Prerequisites: PSY-101 or SOC-101 and junior or senior standing

REL-316W Medieval Women's Spirituality

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines visionary literature written by women from late antiquity to the 15th century. Steeped in Neo-Platonic philosophical assumptions, it is literature written about religious experience, an attempt to express the inexpressible. As such, it is very unlike the more narrative, expository, speculative or technical styles of writing commonly encountered in the academic setting. Students of visionary literature must continue to think critically while offering unbiased and serious consideration to experiences very unlike their own. Medieval women's devotional literature offers valuable insight into specific gender roles, lifestyles, societal expectations, and religious practices in a time long past. In the same instance, it reaches out across time and addresses the nature of the human condition in any social, cultural or historical setting. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and writing intensive

SOC-313 Gender, Crime and Justice

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Investigation of the interaction between gender and social control in the United States and cross-culturally. The gendered nature of criminal activity is examined empirically and theoretically. The justice system, including the correctional treatment of men and women, is examined. Prerequisite: SOC-101 Offered alternate years

SOC-334 Gender and Sexuality Studies

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to a variety of conceptual frameworks and theoretical lenses relating to human gender and sexualities, including social constructionism, political economy, and cultural studies. A critical, global, historical, and sociological approach will be emphasized to unpack gendered ad sexualized social structures like patriarchy, heterosexism, and hegemonic masculinity. Special attention will be paid to social movements and challenges to power/resource inequalities made by gender and sexuality-based minority groups. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and SOC-101 FILA general education: global dynamics Offered alternate years

SOC-366E Sociology of Birth and Death

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of how society supports, controls and constrains our arrival into and departure from the world, revealing the ways that events often assumed to be "natural" are in fact conditioned by social and cultural forces. Special emphasis on the communication of cultural norms regarding birth and death, the impact of advances in medicine and technology, and how birth and death become cultural metaphors for other social phenomena. The course includes an interfaith studies component focused on Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Native American death rituals. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, ENG-110, and SOC-101 FILA general education: ethical reasoning

Interfaith Studies Concentration

Degree Type Offered: Concentration

The concentration in Interfaith Studies is an interdisciplinary program, consisting of 10 credit hours. The concentration allows students in any major and/or pre-professional program to acquire the knowledge base and skills needed to work within and across religious diversity to promote peace, stability, and enduring cooperation and problem-solving across religious difference.

Students must complete the following courses:

REL-215 Introduction to Interfaith Studies

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course introduces theoretical and practical paradigms within the emerging field of Interfaith Studies. It explores how college students can become interfaith advocates and leaders who shift public discourse and practices from conflict to cooperation. It teaches foundational tenets within multiple religious traditions that advocate for, and promote, peace; skills inherent to interfaith advocacy; current interreligious issues in the news, and successful models of interfaith understanding and cooperation. It will provide foundational concepts and skills for students interested in Global Studies, Interfaith Studies, and Peace Studies. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: global dynamics

REL-483 Interfaith Studies Senior Seminar

Credits: 1 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is the one-credit capstone seminar of the Interfaith Studies concentration. It will bring students in the concentration together from their different disciplinary and pre-professional programs to reflect together upon their learning while in concentration courses and to explore how the core competencies of Interfaith Studies translate into their academic and professional areas of interest. Much of the course will involve interfaith case studies relevant to each of the range of academic and professional domains of the concentration (health series/pre-med; political science/pre-law; interfaith studies/pre-ministry; sociology/pre-social work; and communications/theatre. Emphasis will be on reflection upon cases and experiences, and public deliberation skills. An interview with a local religious leader will also be assigned. Prerequisites: REL-215 and 2 additional courses from the Interfaith Studies concentration

And two courses from the following :

PSCI-355 Constitutional Law of Civil Rights and Liberties

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of the development of US Supreme Court decisions in the areas of civil rights and civil liberties. Topics include first amendment rights to freedom of speech, press, and assembly, due process rights, and rights to equal protection. This course also considers the First Amendment as a site for interfaith dialogue. Offered alternate years

PSY-475E Neuroethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Delineates a new field of Neuroethics concerned with the social, legal and ethical implications of modern research on the brain. Brings together contemporary writings from neuroscientists, bioethicists, public policy makers and scholars in the humanities for discussion and debate on these issues. The relationship between different faith and philosophical positions on decision making from an applied (clinical) perspective will also be investigated. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW; ENG-110; and PSY-101 and PSY-210 or BIOL-110; or permission of instructor FILA general education: ethical reasoning Offered alternate years

REL-318E Religious Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A critical survey of ethical perspectives ad issues in the thought and practices of several religious traditions. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

REL-335E Christian Perspectives on Violence and Peace

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Biblical, historical, and social attitudes toward violence and peace including a study of political, social, and scientific factors that affect violence at the interpersonal, and through war at the international levels of human and interfaith experience. A seminar approach is used. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

SOC-366E Sociology of Birth and Death

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of how society supports, controls and constrains our arrival into and departure from the world, revealing the ways that events often assumed to be "natural" are in fact conditioned by social and cultural forces. Special emphasis on the communication of cultural norms regarding birth and death, the impact of advances in medicine and technology, and how birth and death become cultural metaphors for other social phenomena. The course includes an interfaith studies component focused on Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Native American death rituals. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, ENG-110, and SOC-101 FILA general education: ethical reasoning

SOC-370E Sociology of Religion

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of religion as a powerful force of social cohesion, order, meaning and change in human societies. Special attention will be given to why people are religious or not religious; the growth and decline of religious organizations; religious conversion and loss of faith; the impact of modernity on religion and religious belief, especially among young and emerging adults. The social context in which various religious communities exist and how they shape and are being shaped by their social context will also be investigated. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, ENG-110, and SOC-101 FILA general education: ethical reasoning

THEA-345 Acting: Styles and Techniques

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course will introduce the student to the physical, vocal, and mental worlds of various styles and techniques of non-realistic performance traditions. Students will experiment with a variety of acting styles and techniques including physical, masked, post-modern, non-western, and devised performance. This course includes interfaith components of eastern meditative, movement, and centering practices as they are linked to acting methods and techniques. This course is a practical expression of the theoretical and historical. Textual analysis, scene work, monologues, and various training exercises will be used. Corequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: fine arts & music Offered alternate years

Courses

PHIL-210 Philosophical Questions

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines fundamental themes of philosophy such as: the possibility and nature of knowledge; whether or not human beings are free; arguments for and against the existence of God; the nature of good and evil; what makes a good life; and mortality. Corequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion

PHIL-225E Contemporary Moral and Political Problems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examines pressing moral and philosophical questions that have become major political issues of our day. Problems considered include abortion, sexism, racism, drugs, privacy and censorship, civil disobedience, and others of interest to the group. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

PHIL-228E Philosophy of Popular Culture

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A systematic philosophical analysis of the major entertainment media of modern American culture aimed at determining the values reflected in and arising from popular movies, television, comics, music, and literature. Students select and research materials from the most popular national media, assessing the reasons for their extreme popularity. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

PHIL-235E Bioethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Confronts a number of modern scientific and ethical problems including abortion, genetic testing, genetically modified plants and animals, stem cells, gene therapy, research on humans, and physician-assisted suicide. Biology and biotechnology often confound our notions of right and wrong, and what ethical behavior is. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general Education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning Offered alternate years

PHIL-300 Topics in Philosophy and Religion

Credits: 3 Term Offered:

Examines fundamental questions in metaphysics, epistemology, aesthetics and ethics from both a philosophical and a theological perspective. Introduces methods and subjects of study in the disciplines of Philosophy and Religion. Designed and intended for students who are considering a major or minor in Philosophy and Religion. Corequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: philosophy or religion Offered on demand (Cross-listed as REL-300)

PHIL-310 Logic

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Skills of reasoning for solving problems found in ordinary language, deductive and inductive formats, and in common fallacies. A brief introduction to symbolic logic, scientific method, and probability. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion

PHIL-318E Philosophical Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines significant ethical theories such as those based upon duty, the results of actions, virtue, the benefit of actions to self and the benefit of actions to others. We will examine primary texts from thinkers such as Aristotle, Mill, Kant and Nietzsche. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy and religion and ethical reasoning

PHIL-320E Professional Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Pressing issues confronting professionals in a technological era. Utilizing the insights of philosophical and religious ethics, the course examines the responsibilities of the professional person in business, medicine, law education, the ministry, and other fields. Problems considered include confidentiality, accountability, whistleblowing, governmental regulation, and ethical codes. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG 110 and junior or senior standing FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

PHIL-322EW Ethics and Identity

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduces ethical issues related to gender, race, and class. Surveys the development of identity-related critiques of traditional ethical theories and examines how the concept of "the good life" is related to identity. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 and SOC-101 or PSCI/SOC-205 FILA general education: philosophy or religion, ethical reasoning and writing intensive Offered alternate years

PHIL-328 Germanic Cultures

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Analyzes Germanic culture contributions by traveling to Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Language, philosophical influences, and theological developments determine the itinerary for the course. Modern history from 16th century to the present suggest sites to be visited. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: world cultures Offered on demand

PHIL-329 Classical Cultures: Greece and Italy

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Analyzes the historical and cultural roots of Western culture with special concern for the religious and philosophical heritage. Fifteen days of travel are combined with the academic study of the historical sites, literature, art, and concepts of these extraordinary ancient civilizations. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: world cultures Offered on demand

PHIL-331EW Ancient and Medieval Western Philosophy

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Traces the history of Western thought from its foundations with the Presocratic thinkers, Plato, and Aristotle, to its offspring in Hellenistic thought, and down to Medieval thought. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion, ethical reasoning and writing intensive Offered alternate years

PHIL-332W Modern Philosophy

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

The primary works of thinkers from Descartes to Hegel are analyzed, and the historical relationship between those thinkers and their influence upon the Western world are examined. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and writing intensive Offered alternate years

PHIL-333W Contemporary Philosophy

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Developments in the 20th and 21st century Western philosophy are analyzed using primary texts from both Analytic and Continental traditions. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and writing intensive Offered alternate years

PHIL-335 Philosophy of Religion

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Concepts and problems associated with theistic faith in the West. Areas of inquiry and reflection include: the relation of philosophy to religion, arguments for and against the existence of God, the problem of evil, the nature of religious experience (including miracles and mystical experience), the purpose and meaning of religious language, and the immortality of the soul. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion Offered on demand

PHIL-337W Philosophy of Science

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Interaction of philosophy and science that affects human understanding of the physical universe, life, the mind, and human values. Investigations are made into methods of research, physical evidence defining our universe, the principle of relativity, the uncertainty principle, predictive knowledge, and related topics. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and writing intensive Offered alternate years

PHIL-340E Environmental Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examines the historical development of environmental ethics in the U.S., major ethical approaches to contemporary environmental issues, and the application of those theories to particular topics such as ecojustice, biodiversity, and global warming. Readings will be drawn from a wide range of sources, from ancient scripture to current news reports. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW; ENG-110; and one of the following courses: BIOL-100, BIOL-101, BIOL-110, CHEM-102 or CHEM-161 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

PHIL-367 Conflict Trans

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A broad introduction to the field, familiarizes students with conflict and practical approaches to its transformation. Personal communication and conflict styles, negotiation skills, interpersonal mediation and facilitation of group decision-making and problem-solving strategies are examined. Participation in discussions, exercises, analyses, role-plays and simulations frame the course. In addition to the regularly scheduled meeting times, one Saturday session is included. Prerequisite: SOC-101

PHIL-420W Postmodernism

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Analyzes philosophically the eras of the 20th century considered "modernism" and "postmodernism." Some key ideas of relativity, literary criticism, modern warfare, social norms, and ethical values from art, literature, sciences, social sciences, and philosophy. Authors from the movements called existentialism, structuralism, deconstructionism, feminism, pragmatism, et al. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and writing intensive Offered alternate years

PHIL-430 Senior Seminar

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Intensive study, research, and discussion in a field of current interest in philosophy and religion. Required senior seminar for Philosophy and Religion majors. Prerequisite: Minimum of 18 credit hours of course work in the Department of Philosophy and Religion (Cross-listed as REL-430)

PHIL-480 Internship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Provides an opportunity for a student to gain field experience in an area related to the student's concentration or career goals. Supervision of an intern is provided by an appropriate faculty member and by a staff member of the agency or business in which the student is an intern. A student who wishes to engage in an internship must consult with the appropriate faculty member at least eight weeks in advance of the start of the term in which the internship is to be completed. A description of the internship, signed by the student and the faculty sponsor, must be filed with the director of internships by the first day of the semester prior to the start of the internship. Approval of each application for an internship is made by the director of internships based upon policies and guidelines as approved by the Council on Education and the faculty. To be considered for an internship, a student must have junior or senior status and at least a 2.00 grade point average. Internships are graded on an S or U basis. A student may enroll in an internship program for 3 credits per semester, and internship credit may be earned in subsequent semesters subject to the limitations that no more than two internships may be pursued in any one agency or business and a maximum of 9 credits in internships may be applied toward graduation.

PHIL-485X Gender Studies Practicum

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

A supervised practicum experience in a public or private organization that addresses women's and gender-related issues. The practicum requires 120 hours of field participation over the semester, weekly journals, and a final substantive, scholarly paper. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, at least one course from the gender studies concentration, sophomore standing, and permission of instructor (Cross-listed as REL-485X)

PHIL-490 Independent Study

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for no more than three independent studies or research projects.

PHIL-491 Research

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for not more than three independent studies or research projects.

PHIL-499 Honors Project

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

An honors project is one in which a student researches a subject, by examination of relevant literature or by experimentation or both; the student reports the results in an accurately documented and well-written paper or appropriate representation of the work. Whenever the study deals with the subject of an established course, the student is expected to go well beyond the usual work of the course in research and in assimilation of the results as revealed in the report. Juniors and seniors with a cumulative grade point average of 3.40 or above may register for an honors project. One desiring to pursue an honors project must submit a written description of his or her proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. Upon the completion of the honors project, the student must present an oral defense of his or her project. The final grade must include a satisfactory performance on the oral defense, assessed by a three-faculty member team. The project advisor will authorize the make-up of the oral defense team and will assign the final grade on the project. The honors project title will be noted on the student's transcript. It is the student's responsibility to provide a copy of the written paper or appropriate representation of the work to the library in compliance with specifications approved by the Council on Education. The library director arranges for binding and storage.

REL-180 Religions and Nature

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A survey of religious practices and perspectives regarding the natural world. It considers such questions as: What are the differences between "creation," "the environment," and "biophysical reality"? Is matter more real than spirit? What are the differences and similarities among religious ideas about human-nonhuman relationships? Are religions to blame for environmental degradation, or can they offer resources for sustainable living? Where is the sacred in relation to nature? A selection of Western, Eastern, and indigenous religious perspectives will be included. Corequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion

REL-210X Study of Religious Traditions

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

The objective of this course is to introduce to 1) the variety of intellectual disciplines by means of which religions may be studied and 2) the basic concepts that make up a religious worldview, including concepts of the sacred, religious symbolism, myth, doctrine, ritual, soteriology, and ethics. A central question of the course is how and to what degree these concepts and practices cross over between world religions, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Chinese traditions, Japanese traditions, and secular humanism. The professor will acquaint students with a variety of methodologies within the field of Religious Studies, from theological, literary, and historical to anthropological, sociological, and phenomenological approaches. A handful of films will be screened that illustrate particular concepts, practices, and struggles within several religious traditions. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and experiential learning

REL-215 Introduction to Interfaith Studies

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course introduces theoretical and practical paradigms within the emerging field of Interfaith Studies. It explores how college students can become interfaith advocates and leaders who shift public discourse and practices from conflict to cooperation. It teaches foundational tenets within multiple religious traditions that advocate for, and promote, peace; skills inherent to interfaith advocacy; current interreligious issues in the news, and successful models of interfaith understanding and cooperation. It will provide foundational concepts and skills for students interested in Global Studies, Interfaith Studies, and Peace Studies. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: global dynamics

REL-220 New Testament

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Christian beginnings with emphasis upon the literature and thought of the early Christian community. Introduces information and skills necessary for examining the New Testament documents and their relevance in the history of Western culture. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion

REL-250 Reel-World Religions: Inter-Religious Encounters in Contemporary Film

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Studies six contemporary films that depict encounters between members of several world religions including Native American, Christian, Buddhist, Jewish, Shinto, Hindu and Muslim traditions. Explores inter-religious expressions from curiosity to resentment and hostility to reconciliation within the context of historical, political and inter-cultural crises and evolutions. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: world cultures

REL-251X Israel-Palestine: People, Places, Perspectives, Peace

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Provides extraordinary opportunities for Bridgewater students to meet a broad range of Israelis and Palestinians and learn about their individual perspectives and shared challenge of finding peace in the religion. They will listen, learn, dialogue and do volunteer work with others. Students will meet Israeli Jews and Arabs, Palestinian Christians and Muslims, rabbis, imams, IDF soldiers, settlers and many peacemakers. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: global dynamics and experiential learning Offered alternate years

REL-300 Topics in Philosophy and Religion

Credits: 3 Term Offered:

Examines fundamental questions in metaphysics, epistemology, aesthetics and ethics from both a philosophical and a theological perspective. Introduces methods and subjects of study in the disciplines of philosophy and religion. Designed and intended for students who are considering a major or minor in Philosophy and religion. Corequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW FILA general education: philosophy or religion Offered on demand (Cross-listed as PHIL-300)

REL-310 Jesus in History and Culture

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

The person and significance of Jesus as understood in his own time and throughout history. Examines literature, art, and film to appreciate how the perceptions of Jesus change and develop within various social and historical contexts. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion Offered alternate years

REL-312 Archaeology and the Bible

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

An exploration of the scientific field of archaeology as it relates to the religions, cultures and literature of ancient Israel and early Christianity. Through lectures, extensive video material and a field trip, this course critically examines the history, methodologies, discoveries and controversies of biblical archaeology in the Middle East. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, and ENG-110 FILA general education: world cultures

REL-315 The Lands of Bible

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

The history, sociology, and archaeology of Palestine as these disciplines relate to the literature, religions, and cultures of ancient Hebrew society and early Christianity. Following the first week of study on campus, two weeks are devoted to visiting sites of biblical and religious importance in Israel and Jordan. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: world cultures Offered on demand

REL-316W Medieval Women's Spirituality

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines visionary literature written by women from late antiquity to the 15th century. Steeped in Neo-Platonic philosophical assumptions, it is literature written about religious experience, an attempt to express the inexpressible. As such, it is very unlike the more narrative, expository, speculative or technical styles of writing commonly encountered in the academic setting. Students of visionary literature must continue to think critically while offering unbiased and serious consideration to experiences very unlike their own. Medieval women's devotional literature offers valuable insight into specific gender roles, lifestyles, societal expectations, and religious practices in a time long past. In the same instance, it reaches out across time and addresses the nature of the human condition in any social, cultural or historical setting. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW, and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and writing intensive

REL-317 History of the Christian Church

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to Christianity, surveying all three historical traditions: Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant. Special emphasis on social and political structures of the church, and issues in theology and ethics from the Apostolic Age to the resent. Prerequisites: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion (Cross-listed as HIST-317)

REL-318E Religious Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A critical survey of ethical perspectives ad issues in the thought and practices of several religious traditions. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

REL-319 History of the Church of the Brethren

Credits: 3 Term Offered:

From its beginning to the present day. Emphasis upon understanding the church today in light of its historical development with a special focus on Brethren doctrines and practices. Prerequisite: ENG-110 Offered on demand

REL-325X The Uses and Abuses of Christian Scripture

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the power of Biblical interpretations to influence, control and mobilize readers. Focuses on the evolution of basic interpretive rules and assumptions about how to interpret Biblical passages, and also the changing contexts and objectives of Biblical interpretation from Jesus' readings of the Hebrew Bible through scholarly approaches that developed post-Enlightenment. Primary sources include divergent interpretations of passages, infamous sermons and political speeches. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and experiential learning Offered alternate years

REL-326 Readings in the Hebrew Scripture

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

History, literature and faith of the Hebrew people as revealed in the study of specific topics in Hebrew Scriptures. Designated material in the Hebrew Bible will be examined through the insights of literary analysis, archaeology, anthropology and historical criticism with special emphasis on interpretive methods. Prerequisite: ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion

REL-327W Biblical Themes in Literature

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Studies literature inspired by the Bible. Reading and writing about how religious ideas are expressed in literature, how authors use specific biblical stories in their novels, and how various authors may differ in their retellings of the same story. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and ENG-110 FILA general education: literature & writing intensive Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as ENG-327W)

REL-331W Christian Beliefs

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Or Spring

Introduction to Christian theology. The central doctrines of the Christian faith examined in the context of their historical development. Various interpretations of those doctrines in contemporary theology are evaluated. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and writing intensive Offered alternate years

REL-332W Reformation Thought

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

The formative period of thought for contemporary Catholic and Protestant Christianity. Thinkers include representative scholastics, the Humanists, Luther, Zwingli and the Anabaptists, Calvin, and the Catholic Reform expressed in the Councils from Constance to Trent. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and writing intensive Offered alternate years

REL-333W Contemporary Christian Thought

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Critical reading and discussion of writings of representative, contemporary, academic theologians (including Barth, Bonhoeffer, Cone, Gutierrez, Kung, and Schussler Fiorenza) with a view to developing and awareness of basic issues and patterns in present theological thinking. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and writing intensive Offered alternate years

REL-335E Christian Perspectives on Violence and Peace

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Biblical, historical, and social attitudes toward violence and peace including a study of political, social, and scientific factors that affect violence at the interpersonal, and through war at the international levels of human and interfaith experience. A seminar approach is used. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

REL-340 Religions of the Near East

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Major living religions of the Near East stressing a sympathetic understanding of the illumination, which is provided the adherents of each for daily living, as well as some of the cultural expressions of each in those societies where they flourish. Religions studied include Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: world cultures Offered alternate years

REL-350 Religions of the Far East

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Major living religions of the Far East stressing a sympathetic understanding of the illumination, which is provided the adherents of each for daily living, as well as some of the cultural expressions of each in those societies where they flourish. Religions studied include Hinduism, Buddhism, and native Chinese religion. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: world cultures Offered alternate years

REL-365 Foundations of American Religion

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of American religious history with a focus on origins and diversity. Major topics include Puritanism, Revivalism, Mormonism, Methodism, African-American religion, fundamentalism Catholicism, Judaism and religion during the Cold War. Offered alternate years (Cross-listed as HIST-365)

REL-400 Peace Studies Seminar

Credits: 3 Term Offered:

A brief history of peace studies in the United States, current issues in peace studies, studies in the philosophy of civilization, the roles of violence and nonviolence in protest and revolution, and the roles of church and state in peacemaking. Prerequisite: ENG-110 Offered on demand

REL-420EW Christian Social Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Personal and social ethical issues from the perspective of contemporary writings of Christian ethicists. Normative and contextual approaches. An examination of the relationship between religion and culture. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350EW and ENG-110 FILA general education: philosophy or religion, ethical reasoning and writing intensive Offered on demand

REL-430 Senior Seminar

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Intensive study, research, and discussion in a field of current interest in philosophy and religion. This is the required senior seminar for Philosophy and Religions majors. Prerequisites: Minimum of 18 credit hours of course work in the Department of Philosophy and Religion (Cross-listed as PHIL-430)

REL-480 Internship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Provides an opportunity for a student to gain field experience in an area related to the student's concentration or career goals. Supervision of an intern is provided by an appropriate faculty member and by a staff member of the agency or business in which the student is an intern. A student who wishes to engage in an internship must consult with the appropriate faculty member at least eight weeks in advance of the start of the term in which the internship is to be completed. A description of the internship, signed by the student and the faculty sponsor, must be filed with the director of internships by the first day of the semester prior to the start of the internship. Approval of each application for an internship is made by the director of internships based upon policies and guidelines as approved by the Council on Education and the faculty. To be considered for an internship, a student must have junior or senior status and at least a 2.00 grade point average. Internships are graded on an S or U basis. A student may enroll in an internship program for 3 credits per semester, and internship credit may be earned in subsequent semesters subject to the limitations that no more than two internships may be pursued in any one agency or business and a maximum of 9 credits in internships may be applied toward graduation.

REL-483 Interfaith Studies Senior Seminar

Credits: 1 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course is the one-credit capstone seminar of the Interfaith Studies concentration. It will bring students in the concentration together from their different disciplinary and pre-professional programs to reflect together upon their learning while in concentration courses and to explore how the core competencies of Interfaith Studies translate into their academic and professional areas of interest. Much of the course will involve interfaith case studies relevant to each of the range of academic and professional domains of the concentration (health series/pre-med; political science/pre-law; interfaith studies/pre-ministry; sociology/pre-social work; and communications/theatre. Emphasis will be on reflection upon cases and experiences, and public deliberation skills. An interview with a local religious leader will also be assigned. Prerequisites: REL-215 and 2 additional courses from the Interfaith Studies concentration

REL-485X Gender Studies Practicum

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

A supervised practicum experience in a public or private organization that addresses women's and gender-related issues. The practicum requires 120 hours of field participation over the semester, weekly journals, and a final substantive, scholarly paper. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, at least one course from the gender studies concentration, sophomore standing, and permission of instructor FILA general education: experiential learning (Cross-listed as PHIL-485X)

REL-490 Independent Study

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for no more than three independent studies or research projects.

REL-491 Research

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for not more than three independent studies or research projects.

REL-499 Honors Project

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

An honors project is one in which a student researches a subject, by examination of relevant literature or by experimentation or both; the student reports the results in an accurately documented and well-written paper or appropriate representation of the work. Whenever the study deals with the subject of an established course, the student is expected to go well beyond the usual work of the course in research and in assimilation of the results as revealed in the report. Juniors and seniors with a cumulative grade point average of 3.40 or above may register for an honors project. One desiring to pursue an honors project must submit a written description of his or her proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. Upon the completion of the honors project, the student must present an oral defense of his or her project. The final grade must include a satisfactory performance on the oral defense, assessed by a three-faculty member team. The project advisor will authorize the make-up of the oral defense team and will assign the final grade on the project. The honors project title will be noted on the student's transcript. It is the student's responsibility to provide a copy of the written paper or appropriate representation of the work to the library in compliance with specifications approved by the Council on Education. The library director arranges for binding and storage.