Academic Catalog

2018-2019 Undergraduate Academic Catalog

Economics & Business Administration

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Majors

Business Administration Major

Economics Major

Minors

Business Administration Minor

Economics Minor

Equine Studies Minor

Emphasis

Accounting Emphasis

Finance Emphasis

International Commerce Emphasis

Marketing Emphasis

Organization Management Emphasis

Financial Economics Emphasis

Concentrations

Administration Management Concentration

The George S. Aldhizer II Department of Economics and Business Administration offers two majors—economics and business administration—that prepare students to pursue managerial and other professional careers as well as graduate education. We build on the liberal arts foundation provided by the College’s general education program and give each student the knowledge, skills and experience to become a successful and ethical leader, capable of making valued contributions to his or her workplace, society and self.
 
Through a combination of lectures, discussions, case analyses, team projects and presentations, and other in-class activities, courses are designed to integrate economic and business theory and practice; encourage independent and critical thinking using both qualitative and quantitative reasoning ; and develop skills in decision making and implementation, teamwork and collaboration, and all forms of communication. Experiential learning opportunities abound through internships, study abroad programs and participation in student organizations, to supplement classroom learning.
 
The economics major consists of 14 courses in economics and mathematics. Economics majors may choose among three tracks: business, government policy and preparation for graduate school via additional mathematics courses. Economics majors can also earn an emphasis in financial economics.
 
The business administration major consists of 15 courses in business, economics and
mathematics. To gain greater depth in a particular area of business, many students pursue one of the five emphases we offer in the business administration major: accounting, finance, international commerce, marketing and organization management. By taking additional courses, in one of these areas, students build specialization on the solid foundation provided by the business administration major.
 
In addition to the previously mentioned majors, the department also offers minors in business administration, economics and equine studies.
 
Business administration majors interested in preparing for an information technology career are encouraged to earn a minor in computer information systems or a second major in information systems management. These programs are offered in the department of mathematics and computer science.
 
Non-business majors who want an introduction to business to complement their majors are encouraged to take the concentration in administration management.

Business Administration Major

Degree Type Offered: B.A. Major

Consists of 45 credit hours (15 three-credit courses), comprised of the following 13 required courses:

BUS-120 Survey of Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces a variety of business principles and practices as a foundation for students majoring in Business Administration and for non-business majors interested in acquiring basic understanding of the business world. Addresses aspects of leadership and personal assessment and development through a semester-long business plan project, helping students to assess their interest in and aptitude for various business disciplines.

MATH-140 Introduction to Statistics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Basic descriptive statistics, probability, hypothesis testing, correlation, and regression. Statistical computer software is used to analyze data. Prerequisites: MATH-118, MATH-110, MATH-115, or satisfactory performance on placement test

ECON-200 Principles of Macroeconomics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces scarcity, opportunity cost, and supply and demand analysis, with special emphasis on aggregate economic growth, unemployment, inflation, and fiscal and monetary policies. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

ECON-210 Principles of Microeconomics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Analysis of individual choice and market behavior, with special emphasis on price and output relationships and the economics of the firm. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

BUS-201 Principles of Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for sole proprietorships and corporations, accounting records, processing accounting information and financial statement content.

BUS-202 Principles of Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for partnerships, time-value of money applications, cash flows, budgeting, cost determination, responsibility accounting, and decision-driven financial information. Prerequisite: BUS-201

BUS-300 Principles of Organization Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

General overview of the principles of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling human and other resources for the achievement of an organization's goals. Examines the impact and role of communication, motivation, group dynamics, and organization culture, conflict and change as the context for current management practices. Uses written and oral reports to develop student writing and speaking skills. Prerequisites: BUS-120, ENG-110 or permission of the instructor

BUS-310 Principles of Marketing

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Explores the principles and practices of how goods, services, and ideas are developed and distributed in order to satisfy individual and organization needs, wants and objectives. Emphasis is placed on the micro-marketing perspectives including product, price, promotion and place. Prerequisites: BUS-120 and COMM-100, or permission of instructor; ECON-210 recommended but not required

BUS-330 Principles of Information Systems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to information system theory and application with special emphasis on information systems design in the functional areas of management, marketing, accounting, and operations management. Prerequisites: BUS-202 and-300, MATH-140 Credit may not be received for both BUS-330 and CIS-250

BUS-340 Management Science

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces essential quantitative techniques and their use in business decision-making, including decision analysis, forecasting, linear programming, project scheduling, inventory cost minimization, and queuing analysis. Emphasis on the practical application of these techniques to production and operations management and other business problems. Prerequisites: BUS-300 and MATH-140 or permission of instructor

-or-

BUS-385 Cost Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Preparation and utilization of financial information for internal management purposes with emphasis placed on cost behavior, cost determination, and the development of information for planning and control purposes. Prerequisites: BUS-202 and MATH-140 Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

BUS-350 Business Law

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

The U.S. legal and regulatory environment, including the sources of law; the resolution of disputes; the Uniform Commercial Code; the laws of torts, contracts, agency, partnerships, corporations, employment, and equal opportunity; and laws regulating competition. Prerequisite: BUS-120, ENG-110, and junior or senior standing

BUS-422X Entrepreneurship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Emphasizes general principles of entrepreneurship and small business management for students interested in developing their own business. Provides practical experience through service learning, written and oral reports. Prerequisites: COMM-100 and BUS-200 or BUS-202, BUS-300, BUS-310, and junior or senior standing; BUS-315 is recommended to be taken prior to or concurrently with the course FILA general education: experiential learning Additional costs associated with travel.

-or-

BUS-478X Strategic Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

A seminar-style capstone course for Business Administration majors that integrates the functional areas of business (accounting, finance, management, and marketing) through analysis, forecasting, and developing solutions to complex business scenarios. The course uses a combination of readings, discussion, case studies, and a team-based computer simulation to focus on managing strategically and responsibly. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, COMM-100, BUS-300, BUS-310, BUS-320, BUS-330, BUS-340 or BUS-385, BUS-350, and senior standing; or permission of instructor FILA general education: experiential learning

Plus 6 additional credit hours in ECON or BUS courses numbered 300 or above

Students double-majoring in business administration and economics are not eligible to select the business track for the economics major.

Economics Major

Degree Type Offered: B.A. Major

Consists of 42 credit hours (14 three-credit courses), comprised of 27 credits from the following nine required courses:

MATH-140 Introduction to Statistics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Basic descriptive statistics, probability, hypothesis testing, correlation, and regression. Statistical computer software is used to analyze data. Prerequisites: MATH-118, MATH-110, MATH-115, or satisfactory performance on placement test

ECON-200 Principles of Macroeconomics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces scarcity, opportunity cost, and supply and demand analysis, with special emphasis on aggregate economic growth, unemployment, inflation, and fiscal and monetary policies. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

ECON-210 Principles of Microeconomics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Analysis of individual choice and market behavior, with special emphasis on price and output relationships and the economics of the firm. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

ECON-300 Money & Banking

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Focuses on the financial system, determinants of interest rates, structure and regulation of the banking system, the Federal Reserve System, and monetary policy and it's impact on aggregate economic activity and inflation. Prerequisite: ECON-200

ECON-330 Government & Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Discussion of the role of government and market forces in promoting economic efficiency, focusing on antitrust policy, economic regulation, and socio-economic engineering. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210

ECON-400 Intermediate Macroeconomics Theory

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Analyzes economic growth, business cycles, and the impact of economic institutions and policies on aggregate economic performance and living standards. Prerequisite: ECON-200

ECON-410 Intermediate Microeconomics Theory

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theoretical and applied development of consumer choice, firm behavior, price and income determination, market behavior, and government policy. Prerequisite: ECON-210

ECON-440 International Economics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theory of international economic interrelationships, including trade, finance, and monetary policies and institutions. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 FILA general education: global dynamics

ECON-460 Senior Seminar

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Capstone course for majors in Economics. Investigates selected economic issues, policies, and problems, and introduces regression methods used to test economic hypotheses. Students conduct quantitative research, collect data, formulate and test hypotheses, and present their results. Prerequisites: ECON-400 and ECON-410 and senior standing, or permission of instructor

Plus 15 additional credits in ECON courses numbered 300 or above, or 9 additional credits in ECON course numbered 300 or above and one of the following tracks:

Business Track

Consists of 6 credit hours (2 three-credit courses), selected from:

BUS-201 Principles of Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for sole proprietorships and corporations, accounting records, processing accounting information and financial statement content.

BUS-202 Principles of Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for partnerships, time-value of money applications, cash flows, budgeting, cost determination, responsibility accounting, and decision-driven financial information. Prerequisite: BUS-201

BUS-300 Principles of Organization Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

General overview of the principles of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling human and other resources for the achievement of an organization's goals. Examines the impact and role of communication, motivation, group dynamics, and organization culture, conflict and change as the context for current management practices. Uses written and oral reports to develop student writing and speaking skills. Prerequisites: BUS-120, ENG-110 or permission of the instructor

Government Policy Track

Consists of 6 credit hours (2 three-credit courses), selected from:

PSCI-210 Politics & Government in the United States

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to American politics, covering the development of American democracy, relations between the states and the federal government, elections, the role of the media, the three branches of national government, and current public policy. Corequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

PSCI-230 Introduction to Global Politics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduces students to the world as a site of political activity. Examines institutions and processes on a global scale. Topics include sovereignty, power, globalization, war, multilateral institutions, the environment, trade, development, poverty and a variety of current events. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: global dynamics

PSCI-420W International Law & Organization

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Explores the nature of international law and its similarities and differences with domestic law. Examines the institutions, rules, and organizations that provide the context for global interactions in an increasingly globalizing world. Case studies include issues such as human rights, the International Criminal Court, the World Trade Organization and the World Bank, and International Monetary Fund. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and ENG-110 FILA general education: writing intensive Offered alternate years

Graduate School Preparation Track

Consists of 6 credit hours (2 three-credit courses):

MATH-131 Calculus I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Study of differential calculus of a single variable. Applications of the derivative are made to curve sketching, max-min problems, and linear approximation, and I'Hopital's Rule. Also included are applications of the Intermediate Value Theorem and Mean Value Theorem. Credit may not be received for both MATH 130 and 131. Prerequisites: MATH-120 or satisfactory performance on placement test

MATH-132 Calculus II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Study of integral calculus of a single variable. Included are techniques of integration and numerical methods of integration. Applications of the integral are made to computing area, volume, arc length, and selected topics. Prerequisite: MATH-131

Students who choose this option should consider taking additional courses beyond MATH-132 as well.

Business Administration Minor

Degree Type Offered: Minor

Consists of 24 credit hours (8 three-credit courses):

BUS-120 Survey of Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces a variety of business principles and practices as a foundation for students majoring in Business Administration and for non-business majors interested in acquiring basic understanding of the business world. Addresses aspects of leadership and personal assessment and development through a semester-long business plan project, helping students to assess their interest in and aptitude for various business disciplines.

ECON-200 Principles of Macroeconomics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces scarcity, opportunity cost, and supply and demand analysis, with special emphasis on aggregate economic growth, unemployment, inflation, and fiscal and monetary policies. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

ECON-210 Principles of Microeconomics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Analysis of individual choice and market behavior, with special emphasis on price and output relationships and the economics of the firm. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

BUS-201 Principles of Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for sole proprietorships and corporations, accounting records, processing accounting information and financial statement content.

BUS-202 Principles of Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for partnerships, time-value of money applications, cash flows, budgeting, cost determination, responsibility accounting, and decision-driven financial information. Prerequisite: BUS-201

BUS-300 Principles of Organization Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

General overview of the principles of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling human and other resources for the achievement of an organization's goals. Examines the impact and role of communication, motivation, group dynamics, and organization culture, conflict and change as the context for current management practices. Uses written and oral reports to develop student writing and speaking skills. Prerequisites: BUS-120, ENG-110 or permission of the instructor

BUS-310 Principles of Marketing

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Explores the principles and practices of how goods, services, and ideas are developed and distributed in order to satisfy individual and organization needs, wants and objectives. Emphasis is placed on the micro-marketing perspectives including product, price, promotion and place. Prerequisites: BUS-120 and COMM-100, or permission of instructor; ECON-210 recommended but not required

Plus 3 additional credit hours in ECON or BUS courses numbered 300 or above

Credits for BUS or ECON-480, ECON-490, ECON-491 and ECON-499 may not be applied to the requirements for either the major or minor in business administration.

Economics Minor

Degree Type Offered: Minor

Consists of 24 credit hours (8 three-credit courses):

MATH-140 Introduction to Statistics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Basic descriptive statistics, probability, hypothesis testing, correlation, and regression. Statistical computer software is used to analyze data. Prerequisites: MATH-118, MATH-110, MATH-115, or satisfactory performance on placement test

ECON-200 Principles of Macroeconomics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces scarcity, opportunity cost, and supply and demand analysis, with special emphasis on aggregate economic growth, unemployment, inflation, and fiscal and monetary policies. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

ECON-210 Principles of Microeconomics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Analysis of individual choice and market behavior, with special emphasis on price and output relationships and the economics of the firm. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

ECON-400 Intermediate Macroeconomics Theory

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Analyzes economic growth, business cycles, and the impact of economic institutions and policies on aggregate economic performance and living standards. Prerequisite: ECON-200

ECON-410 Intermediate Microeconomics Theory

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theoretical and applied development of consumer choice, firm behavior, price and income determination, market behavior, and government policy. Prerequisite: ECON-210

Plus 9 additional credits in ECON courses numbered 300 or above

Credits for ECON-480, ECON-490, ECON-491 and ECON-499 may not be applied to the requirements for either the major or minor in economics.

Equine Studies Minor

Degree Type Offered: Minor

Consists of 21 credit hours. The following courses are required:

 

BUS-212 Equine Farm and Stable Management

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Preventative health maintenance, facility management and basic sound business practices. Topics on horse selection, sanitation, routine veterinary practices, nutrition and supplements, equipment recognition and selection, facilities design, hoof care and furriery, exercise physiology, liability issues and insurance selection. Lecture and laboratory times required.

EQU-111 Introduction to Equine Science

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Survey of history, breeds, characteristics, colors, disciplines, health care, facilities, equipment, anatomy, reproduction, nutrition, management and careers in equine science and industry.

EQU-211 Equine Development & Behavior

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

History of the horse, appreciation of the evolutionary development of the horse, including mental and physical capabilities, and the instincts which guide the horse to self-preservation.

EQU-329 Practicum

Credits: 2 Term Offered: All Terms

Practicum experience consistent with the career objectives of the student. One hundred hours of competency based work in an environment relevant to the student's chosen discipline.

Three additional courses chosen from:

BUS-358 Equine Business Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examination of basic business practices including business plan development, record-keeping, professional ethics, liability, insurance, resource management, evaluating and selecting staff, competitive pricing, identifying regional demographics, advertising, grant design and community development, and building a client base.

EQU-220 Theories Riding

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explanation of theories involved in the development of the riding skills necessary to become successful riders in selected disciplines. Focus on hunter seat equitation but will also identify the differences in riding styles and techniques among disciplines. Identification of the common riding faults and how those faults affect the horses' way of moving. Offered alternate years

EQU-331 Conformation: Form and Function

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Demonstration of the relationship between the horse's conformation and its function or performance including methods of evaluation, confirmation in relation of usability, performance requirements of various breeds, and the methods of judging. Two lecture hours and two hours of practical application per week. Prerequisites: EQU-111 Offered alternate years: 2019-2020

EQU-350X International Equine Breeding, Training and Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

This course is designed to enhance students' understanding of global equine industry management, training, and breeding facilities. Students will have an opportunity to study and evaluate equine selection of breeding stock and young prospects internationally. This course will travel to a selection of international breeding facilities located in the UK and Europe. In addition, the class will allow students to make equine industry contacts. The focus will be on comparison of international horses to American bred horses, concentrating on breeding stock and training stock selection; as well as how each of those practices are managed. Prerequisites: ENG-110, EQU-111 and EQU-211, or permission of instructor FILA general education: experiential learning

EQU-364 Judging and Course Design

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to the process and systems involved in judging hunters, jumpers and hunter seat equitation including how to set up a judge's card, how to identify style strengths and error, the symbols used to record a performance on the card, and how to arrive at an order of award. Additionally, exploration of the design and building of hunter and jumper courses with special emphasis on the suitability of the design to skill level of competitors and level of horses involved. Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

EQU-401 Training & Schooling

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Selection of suitable hunter/jumper prospects as well as teaching basic methods used in breaking horses, selecting facilities, equipment, over fences gymnastics, educating young or problem horses, preparation for horse shows, and the identification of necessary characteristics, personality traits and abilities to become a successful trainer in the horse world of today. Requires a two-hour lecture and two hours of practical application per week. Prerequisites: ES-185

This minor is designed as an excellent adjunct for students studying business, biology or pre-veterinary medicine. In addition, students interested in pursuing further study and/or careers in various equine fields will benefit from the addition of this minor to their curriculum. Facilities used in support of the equine studies minor include the Bridgewater College stables located on the eastern edge of the campus and the Bridgewater College Equestrian Center, located several miles southeast of campus and the home stable for the Bridgewater College Equestrian Program.

A student pursuing the equine studies minor is required to take many classes to fulfill the minor off-site at the Bridgewater College Equestrian Center (BCEC). It is the responsibility of the student to secure transportation to the BCEC.

Accounting Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

Consists of 18 credit hours. Majors in business administration may pursue an emphasis in accounting. 6 credits from the emphasis may be applied to the requirements for the major. 

 

BUS-371 Intermediate Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A two-course examination of financial accounting issues. BUS 371 focuses on accounting theory, FASB's conceptual framework, GAAP & IFRS presentations for financial statements. Prerequisite: BUS-202

BUS-372 Intermediate Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A two-course examination of financial accounting issues. BUS 372 examines time-value of money applications, liabilities, leases, pensions and post-retirement obligations, stockholders' equity, earnings per share, accounting changes, correcting accounting errors, and comprehensive statements of cash flows. Prerequisite: BUS-371

BUS-381 Federal Tax Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to the federal tax structure, emphasizing accounting for personal income taxes, including preparation of individual income tax returns. Highlights working with tax law, determining personal and dependency exemptions, gross income, deductions, losses, depreciation, and tax credits. Prerequisite: BUS-202 Offered alternate years: offered 2018-2019

BUS-385 Cost Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Preparation and utilization of financial information for internal management purposes with emphasis placed on cost behavior, cost determination, and the development of information for planning and control purposes. Prerequisites: BUS-202 and MATH-140 Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

BUS-400 Advanced Accounting

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Accounting for partnerships, business combinations, state and local governments, private not-for-profit organizations and other selected topics. Prerequisites: BUS-372 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

BUS-405 Auditing

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theory and practice of auditing: the techniques, standards, legal environment, and ethics of the public accounting profession. Emphasis is placed on the study of internal controls, and compliance and substantive tests of functional cycles within the firm, audit reports, accounting and review services, and other attestation services. Prerequisite: BUS-372

Majors pursuing careers in public accounting—To sit for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) exam in Virginia, the Virginia Board of Accountancy requires candidates to accumulate these minimums:

120 credit hours in a baccalaureate degree that includes:• 30 credit hours of accounting courses, and• 24 credit hours of (non-accounting ) business courses.

To comply with Virginia Board of Accountancy eligibility rules, students should supplement the accounting emphasis with at least two of the following courses:

BUS-370 Forensic and Investigative Accounting

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the challenging field of forensic and investigative accounting. Topics include introduction to forensic and investigative accounting, forensic accounting education, institutions, and specialties, fraudulent financial reporting, detecting fraud in financial reporting, employee fraud, methods of reconstructing income, money laundering, litigation services provided by accountants, proper evidence management, computing economic damages, computer forensics, profiling the cybercriminal, cybercrime management, cybercrime loss valuations, and business valuations. Prerequisites: BUS-202 Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

BUS-382 Federal Tax Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Emphasizes accounting for preparing corporate, partnership, gift, estate, and trust returns. Focuses on corporate operating rules, organization, capital structure, distributions, S Corporation limitations, exempt entities, and tax administration and practice. Prerequisites: BUS-202 Offered alternate years: 2019-2020

BUS-448 Financial Statement Analysis and Equity Valuation

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Capstone course for the finance emphasis focusing on strategic issues such as capital budgeting, the cost of capital, capital structure, dividend policy, and debt and equity financing. Case studies are used to develop analytical skills and enhance student understanding of the practical application of financial theory. Prerequisites: BUS-320 or concurrent enrollment in BUS-371 Offered alternate years: 2019-2020

To become a licensed CPA in Virginia, the Virginia Board of Accountancy requires candidates to complete 150 credit hours of education, plus the full-time equivalent of one year of relevant accounting experience.

CPA licensing requirements vary by state. If you plan to pursue CPA licensure outside Virginia, please visit that state’s Board of Accountancy website for that state’s requirements.

Finance Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

Consists of 18 credit hours. Majors in business administration may pursue an emphasis in finance. 6 credits from the emphasis may be applied to the requirements for the major. 

ECON-300 Money & Banking

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Focuses on the financial system, determinants of interest rates, structure and regulation of the banking system, the Federal Reserve System, and monetary policy and it's impact on aggregate economic activity and inflation. Prerequisite: ECON-200

ECON-440 International Economics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theory of international economic interrelationships, including trade, finance, and monetary policies and institutions. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 FILA general education: global dynamics

BUS-371 Intermediate Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A two-course examination of financial accounting issues. BUS 371 focuses on accounting theory, FASB's conceptual framework, GAAP & IFRS presentations for financial statements. Prerequisite: BUS-202

BUS-372 Intermediate Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A two-course examination of financial accounting issues. BUS 372 examines time-value of money applications, liabilities, leases, pensions and post-retirement obligations, stockholders' equity, earnings per share, accounting changes, correcting accounting errors, and comprehensive statements of cash flows. Prerequisite: BUS-371

BUS-430 Investments

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to security selection and portfolio management in global financial markets, including the theoretical and practical aspects of asset allocation and stock and bond valuation. Prerequisite: BUS-202 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

BUS-448 Financial Statement Analysis and Equity Valuation

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Capstone course for the finance emphasis focusing on strategic issues such as capital budgeting, the cost of capital, capital structure, dividend policy, and debt and equity financing. Case studies are used to develop analytical skills and enhance student understanding of the practical application of financial theory. Prerequisites: BUS-320 or concurrent enrollment in BUS-371 Offered alternate years: 2019-2020

International Commerce Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

Consists of 18 credit hours. Majors in business administration may pursue an emphasis in international commerce. 6 credits from the emphasis may be applied to the requirements for the major. 

 

ECON-330 Government & Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Discussion of the role of government and market forces in promoting economic efficiency, focusing on antitrust policy, economic regulation, and socio-economic engineering. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210

ECON-440 International Economics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theory of international economic interrelationships, including trade, finance, and monetary policies and institutions. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 FILA general education: global dynamics

PSCI-230 Introduction to Global Politics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduces students to the world as a site of political activity. Examines institutions and processes on a global scale. Topics include sovereignty, power, globalization, war, multilateral institutions, the environment, trade, development, poverty and a variety of current events. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: global dynamics

BUS-468 Contemporary Issues in Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A senior seminar for the marketing, organization management and international emphases designed to help students integrate knowledge from general education, major and emphasis courses with current professional issues. Focus placed on issues such as international marketing, employee relations and other cross-cultural concerns; effects of cross-country financial, legal political, media and transportation variations; interpersonal vs. virtual work environments; e-commerce; professional ethics; adapting and strengthening corporate culture in dynamic environments; and integrating functional and geographic business strategies. Prerequisites: senior standing in the business administration major or permission of instructor

Plus 6 credits from two of the following electives:

BUS-305X International Business and Entrepreneurship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Examines the importance of fostering entrepreneurship as the key to economic, social, and intellectual development in a myriad of cultural settings and economic/political systems around the globe. This course will include a field study approach with visits to embassies and the World Bank on a one week trip to Washington, D.C. Prerequisites: COMM-100 and two courses from ECON-200, ECON-210, PSY-101 and SOC-101 FILA general education: experiential learning

BUS-365X Cross-Cultural Issues in Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Explores cultural differences in business practices. Combines international travel and experiential learning with classroom discussion and reflection to enrich students' educational experience. The travel portion of the course provides opportunities for direct communication with business leaders in the selected location, facility tours, and attending business lectures at local universities. Travel destinations include Europe, South America, Japan and China. On campus, students actively reflect on cross-cultural similarities and differences in the conduct of business, cross-cultural business issues, and ways to become more sensitive to the complexities, relationships, and dialogues among different cultures. May be taken more than once provided a different location is selected each time. Prerequisites: ENG-110 and permission of instructor FILA general education: experiential learning

COMM-333X Europe Media and Culture

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

This course examines the historical similarities and differences between American media and European media. The course will involve approximately a week of classes on the Bridgewater campus prior to traveling to several locations throughout Europe. Three major themes will be explored: 1) the use of persuasion and propaganda techniques employed during World War II and the Cold War, 2) the development of the European television and film industry (prior to WWII and after it), and 3) issues of media conglomeration, globalization, and the influence of the American film and television industry on Europe. Cities that may be toured include: London, Munich, Prague, Berlin and Paris. (The exact cities to be visited will change each year based on availability of speakers, film festivals, and museum special exhibits.) Additional costs associated with travel. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: world cultures and experiential learning

COMM-334 Intercultural Communication

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Theoretical and practical survey of intercultural communication processes. Examines intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and mass media dimensions of intercultural communication. The course specifically focuses on the distinctive cultural behaviors, expectations, values and power dynamics that affect our abilities to communicate effectively and people from diverse cultures. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: global dynamics

FREN-202 Intermediate French I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Continued strengthening of the core skills with a practical approach. Emphasis given to augment professional competency in the language through career focused vocabulary and grammatical structures in key career fields. Modern cultural and literary texts are included. Prerequisite: FREN-201 or placement

FREN-340 French Culture and Civilization

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to French culture and its Revolution. Emphasis is on the intellectual, artistic, political, social, economic, and educational factors. Taught in French. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350; and FREN-202 or permission of instructor FILA general education: world cultures

GER-202 Intermediate German II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Strengthening the skills of speaking, listening, reading, writing and culture at the intermediate level. Modern cultural and literary texts are included. Prerequisite: GER-201 or placement

HIST-356 East Asia

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Survey of East Asia (China and Japan) from 1800 to the present. Emphasis is upon the different paths towards modernity taken by each society, the conflicts involved in the attainment of modernity, and the impact of the West during the period. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: world cultures Offered alternate years

PSCI/SOC-205 Global Identities

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Interdisciplinary exploration of the power and dynamics of human similarities and differences on a global scale. Covers globalization from the perspective of identity and difference, and provides opportunities to question contemporary assumptions, values and patterns of behavior with the goal of making global interactions more constructive ad more peaceful. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: global dynamics

PSCI-420W International Law & Organization

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Explores the nature of international law and its similarities and differences with domestic law. Examines the institutions, rules, and organizations that provide the context for global interactions in an increasingly globalizing world. Case studies include issues such as human rights, the International Criminal Court, the World Trade Organization and the World Bank, and International Monetary Fund. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and ENG-110 FILA general education: writing intensive Offered alternate years

SPAN-202 Intermediate Spanish II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Continued strengthening of core skills with a practical approach. Emphasis given to augment professional competency in the language through career focused vocabulary and grammatical structures in key career fields. Modern cultural and literary texts are included. Prerequisites: SPAN-201 or placement

SPAN-345 Latin American Culture and Civilization

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

The historical development of Spanish-speaking and Latin America including consideration of geography as well as political, social, economic, intellectual, and artistic factors. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN-202 or permission of instructor

SOC-232 Cultural Studies

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

An introduction to the theories and concepts in the interdisciplinary field of cultural studies, with special emphasis on the political economy and identity politics of contemporary American college campuses. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350

SOC-363 Cultures of Japan

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

An historical and cultural study of Japan, with particular attention to religion, government, and the arts. Consideration is given to daily life in Japan and current problems and changes Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and SOC-101 FILA general education: world cultures

SOC-365 Cultures of Africa

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

The racial, social, and cultural history of Africa in ancient and modern times. Attention is given to the impact of urbanization and to African responses to Western values and institutions as carried to the continent by the Colonial powers. Contemporary political and socioeconomic trends and problems. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and SOC-101 FILA general education: world cultures

SOC-361 Development and Underdevelopment in the Modern World

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Dilemmas, tensions, and theoretical and policy issues related to the position of Third World countries in the modern world. Questions of urbanization, industrialization, modernization, westernization, and distribution of economic resources are discussed. Various theories of development and underdevelopment are critically examined. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and SOC-101 FILA general education: global dynamics

A world languages and cultures minor and participation in a one-semester cross-cultural experience are recommended. Students participating in a College-approved study abroad program or a similar approved international experience may apply up to 6 credits earned as part of their travel experience to the elective credits required above.

Marketing Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

Consists of 18 credit hours. Majors in business administration may pursue an emphasis in marketing. 6 credits from the emphasis may be applied to the requirements for the major. 

BUS-315 Marketing Research

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the scope of marketing research and its role in effective decision making. Students investigate, assess and conduct various types of quantitative and qualitative research, from surveys to focus groups. Prerequisites: MATH-140, BUS-310, and junior or senior standing

BUS-412W Professional Selling

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Designed to develop student interaction and business skills with strategies relating to the personal selling side of marketing. Emphasis is placed on business-to-business and consumer selling strategies, as these skills are also applicable to retail selling and may be beneficial in enhancing skills necessary for selling ideas within the business, workplace, community at large or society in general. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, ENG-110, BUS-300, BUS-310, or permission of instructor FILA general education: writing intensive

-or-

COMM-315 Persuasion

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

An introduction to major theories and key concepts of persuasion. Using both social science and rhetorical criticism students will learn how individuals/social movements/institutions create, adapt, and respond to persuasive messages. Students will evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive appeals based on the rhetorical situation. Throughout the course students will consider the ethical implications of persuasive strategies and contexts.

BUS-416W Advertising

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A study of the wide varieties of non-personal ways an organization communicates with customers and other stakeholder groups. Primary emphasis is placed on traditional paid media. Internet and social media options are also reviewed, along with alternative advertising vehicles such as brochures, direct mail and point-of-sale contacts. Course content includes a review of the planning, design and production processes, as well as sample communications as an essential part of the learning process. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, ENG-110, BUS-300, BUS-310, or permission of instructor FILA general education: writing intensive

BUS-468 Contemporary Issues in Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A senior seminar for the marketing, organization management and international emphases designed to help students integrate knowledge from general education, major and emphasis courses with current professional issues. Focus placed on issues such as international marketing, employee relations and other cross-cultural concerns; effects of cross-country financial, legal political, media and transportation variations; interpersonal vs. virtual work environments; e-commerce; professional ethics; adapting and strengthening corporate culture in dynamic environments; and integrating functional and geographic business strategies. Prerequisites: senior standing in the business administration major or permission of instructor

Plus 6 credits from the following electives:

ART-322 Web Design and Development

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Design and construct websites using current HTML and CSS standards and digital tools including Brackets, Dreamweaver and Photoshop. Emphasis on design process, content development and professional workflows.

BUS-414W Consumer Behavior

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A study of purchasing patterns and habits of consumers (individual and business) from both societal and psychological sides; increases student understanding of how businesses develop marketing plans to appeal to recognized consumer needs, wants and characteristics. Emphasis is placed on observations in the retail environment including cultural, societal and personal preferences. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, ENG-110, BUS-300, BUS-310, or permission of instructor FILA general education: writing intensive

COMM-347 Strategic Public Relations

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course will cover strategic planning and specialized public relations issues. Issues include risks, crisis management, social marketing campaigns, and corporate and non-profit communication. Students will learn and apply advanced public relations theories and skills to case studies and real-life situations. Prerequisites: COMM/PWR-255W and one of the following courses ART-322, ART-323, ART-344, ART-347

ECON-410 Intermediate Microeconomics Theory

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theoretical and applied development of consumer choice, firm behavior, price and income determination, market behavior, and government policy. Prerequisite: ECON-210

COMM-325 Communication in the Organization

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Study and application of communication theories and principles in an organizational context. An explanation of organizational communication theories and principles will allow students to develop a theoretical and practical understanding of how communication affects the dynamics of the work environment. Emphasis will be placed on applying communication concepts to students' personal experience or participating in the organizational environment. Offered alternate years

COMM-327 Interpersonal Communication

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines issues related to communication within personal and professional relationships. Students will develop theoretical and practical understandings of verbal and nonverbal communication, the role of technology in interpersonal communication and how interpersonal communication functions to develop, negotiate, maintain and terminate relationships.

COMM-332 American Television & Culture

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Critical examination of the history of television and its influence on society. Includes exploration of the various methods of studying television. Topics covered include the development of the television industry, various television genres and the future of television. Special emphasis on the exploration of how television messages influence our views of social groups marked by gender, race, class, sexuality and age. Offered alternate years

COMM-334 Intercultural Communication

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Theoretical and practical survey of intercultural communication processes. Examines intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and mass media dimensions of intercultural communication. The course specifically focuses on the distinctive cultural behaviors, expectations, values and power dynamics that affect our abilities to communicate effectively and people from diverse cultures. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: global dynamics

COMM-335 Communicating Sex and Gender

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Students will develop theoretical and practical understandings of the role of sex and gender in verbal and nonverbal communication, friendships, families, romantic relationships and professional relationships. This course also examines the issues of technology, health, power and violence as they related to sex and gender. Alternate years: offered 2018-2019

COMM-340 Representations of Gender, Race & Class

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines the media's role in creating and re-creating our understanding of gender, race, and class. Includes a historical perspective, and traces how these representations have changed over time, the forces that have affected representations of gender, race and class, and the current state of their representation in the media. A field trip to at least one museum in Washington, D.C. is planned, depending upon exhibits available at the time (e.g. National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian's American History Museum). Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

COMM-345 Argumentation and Debate

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course provides students with a foundational knowledge of classical principles of oral rhetoric and modern theories of the conventions of argumentation. Students will engage in critical examination of issues and the use of argumentation of support and defend a position. Upon completion of this course students will be able to construct and evaluate factual, value and policy claims. Prerequisite: COMM-100 Alternate years: offered 2019-2020

COMM-349X Nonprofit Communication

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Introduces students to the burgeoning nonprofit sector of American society. Students learn what makes an organization a nonprofit, explore the purposes of a nonprofit sector in society, consider the often overlooked field of nonprofit media, and explore the challenges and opportunities of working in, with, and for nonprofit organizations. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and COMM-100 FILA general education: experiential learning

Organization Management Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

Consists of 18 credit hours. Majors in business administration may pursue an emphasis in organization management. 6 credits from the emphasis may be applied to the requirements for the major. 

 

BUS-420 Human Resource Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Personnel administration from a managerial perspective, including recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and motivation, employee/management relations, and various legal and regulatory issues. Prerequisite: BUS-300

BUS-468 Contemporary Issues in Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A senior seminar for the marketing, organization management and international emphases designed to help students integrate knowledge from general education, major and emphasis courses with current professional issues. Focus placed on issues such as international marketing, employee relations and other cross-cultural concerns; effects of cross-country financial, legal political, media and transportation variations; interpersonal vs. virtual work environments; e-commerce; professional ethics; adapting and strengthening corporate culture in dynamic environments; and integrating functional and geographic business strategies. Prerequisites: senior standing in the business administration major or permission of instructor

PHIL-320E Professional Ethics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Pressing issues confronting professionals in a technological era. Utilizing the insights of philosophical and religious ethics, the course examines the responsibilities of the professional person in business, medicine, law education, the ministry, and other fields. Problems considered include confidentiality, accountability, whistleblowing, governmental regulation, and ethical codes. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and ENG 110 and junior or senior standing FILA general education: philosophy or religion and ethical reasoning

Plus 12 credit hours chosen from the following two categories:

3 or 6 credit hours from:

ECON-310 U.S. Economics & Business History

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Traces the growth and development of the U.S. economy and economic institutions from the Colonial era to the present with special emphasis on key institutions and events, such as slavery, industrialization, the rise of big business and the Great Depression. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 FILA general education: global dynamics

ECON-320 Labor Economics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Analysis of labor market supply and demand, wages and salaries, collective bargaining, discrimination, and macroeconomic implications of labor market issues. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

ECON-330 Government & Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Discussion of the role of government and market forces in promoting economic efficiency, focusing on antitrust policy, economic regulation, and socio-economic engineering. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210

ECON-440 International Economics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theory of international economic interrelationships, including trade, finance, and monetary policies and institutions. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 FILA general education: global dynamics

6 or 9 credit hours from:

BUS-305X International Business and Entrepreneurship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Examines the importance of fostering entrepreneurship as the key to economic, social, and intellectual development in a myriad of cultural settings and economic/political systems around the globe. This course will include a field study approach with visits to embassies and the World Bank on a one week trip to Washington, D.C. Prerequisites: COMM-100 and two courses from ECON-200, ECON-210, PSY-101 and SOC-101 FILA general education: experiential learning

BUS-365X Cross-Cultural Issues in Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Explores cultural differences in business practices. Combines international travel and experiential learning with classroom discussion and reflection to enrich students' educational experience. The travel portion of the course provides opportunities for direct communication with business leaders in the selected location, facility tours, and attending business lectures at local universities. Travel destinations include Europe, South America, Japan and China. On campus, students actively reflect on cross-cultural similarities and differences in the conduct of business, cross-cultural business issues, and ways to become more sensitive to the complexities, relationships, and dialogues among different cultures. May be taken more than once provided a different location is selected each time. Prerequisites: ENG-110 and permission of instructor FILA general education: experiential learning

BUS-422X Entrepreneurship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Emphasizes general principles of entrepreneurship and small business management for students interested in developing their own business. Provides practical experience through service learning, written and oral reports. Prerequisites: COMM-100 and BUS-200 or BUS-202, BUS-300, BUS-310, and junior or senior standing; BUS-315 is recommended to be taken prior to or concurrently with the course FILA general education: experiential learning Additional costs associated with travel.

BUS-478X Strategic Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

A seminar-style capstone course for Business Administration majors that integrates the functional areas of business (accounting, finance, management, and marketing) through analysis, forecasting, and developing solutions to complex business scenarios. The course uses a combination of readings, discussion, case studies, and a team-based computer simulation to focus on managing strategically and responsibly. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, COMM-100, BUS-300, BUS-310, BUS-320, BUS-330, BUS-340 or BUS-385, BUS-350, and senior standing; or permission of instructor FILA general education: experiential learning

COMM-315 Persuasion

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

An introduction to major theories and key concepts of persuasion. Using both social science and rhetorical criticism students will learn how individuals/social movements/institutions create, adapt, and respond to persuasive messages. Students will evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive appeals based on the rhetorical situation. Throughout the course students will consider the ethical implications of persuasive strategies and contexts.

COMM-325 Communication in the Organization

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Study and application of communication theories and principles in an organizational context. An explanation of organizational communication theories and principles will allow students to develop a theoretical and practical understanding of how communication affects the dynamics of the work environment. Emphasis will be placed on applying communication concepts to students' personal experience or participating in the organizational environment. Offered alternate years

COMM-327 Interpersonal Communication

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines issues related to communication within personal and professional relationships. Students will develop theoretical and practical understandings of verbal and nonverbal communication, the role of technology in interpersonal communication and how interpersonal communication functions to develop, negotiate, maintain and terminate relationships.

COMM-334 Intercultural Communication

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Theoretical and practical survey of intercultural communication processes. Examines intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and mass media dimensions of intercultural communication. The course specifically focuses on the distinctive cultural behaviors, expectations, values and power dynamics that affect our abilities to communicate effectively and people from diverse cultures. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: global dynamics

COMM-347 Strategic Public Relations

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course will cover strategic planning and specialized public relations issues. Issues include risks, crisis management, social marketing campaigns, and corporate and non-profit communication. Students will learn and apply advanced public relations theories and skills to case studies and real-life situations. Prerequisites: COMM/PWR-255W and one of the following courses ART-322, ART-323, ART-344, ART-347

COMM-349X Nonprofit Communication

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Introduces students to the burgeoning nonprofit sector of American society. Students learn what makes an organization a nonprofit, explore the purposes of a nonprofit sector in society, consider the often overlooked field of nonprofit media, and explore the challenges and opportunities of working in, with, and for nonprofit organizations. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350 and COMM-100 FILA general education: experiential learning

ES-456 Management Concepts in Health Care

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Concepts of administration such as devising policy and procedures, record-keeping, budgeting, facility design, risk management and productivity standards for healthcare professionals. (Cross-listed as at-456)

PSCI-380 Public Administration

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of the most pressing domestic issues confronting American society in the 21st century and the institutions and legal regimes developed to administer public policy. Topics include health care, education, criminal justice, social welfare policies, immigration, environmental issues, organizational theory, bureaucratic management and budgeting. Emphasizes active learning with simulations, debates, and engagement with public policy and public administration professionals. Offered alternate years

SOC/PHIL-367 Conflict Transformation

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Broad introduction to the field, familiarizes students with conflict and practical approaches to its transformation. Personal communication and conflict styles, negotiation skills, interpersonal mediation, and facilitation of group decision-making and problem-solving strategies are examined. Participation in discussions, exercises, analyses, role-plays and simulations frame the course. In addition to the regularly scheduled meeting times, one Saturday session is included. Prerequisite: SOC-101

Financial Economics Emphasis

Degree Type Offered: Emphasis

Consists of 18 credit hours. Majors in economics can acquire additional depth in finance by pursuing the emphasis in financial economics. 6 credits from the emphasis may be applied to the requirements for the economics major. 

BUS-201 Principles of Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for sole proprietorships and corporations, accounting records, processing accounting information and financial statement content.

BUS-202 Principles of Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for partnerships, time-value of money applications, cash flows, budgeting, cost determination, responsibility accounting, and decision-driven financial information. Prerequisite: BUS-201

BUS-371 Intermediate Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A two-course examination of financial accounting issues. BUS 371 focuses on accounting theory, FASB's conceptual framework, GAAP & IFRS presentations for financial statements. Prerequisite: BUS-202

BUS-430 Investments

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to security selection and portfolio management in global financial markets, including the theoretical and practical aspects of asset allocation and stock and bond valuation. Prerequisite: BUS-202 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

BUS-448 Financial Statement Analysis and Equity Valuation

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Capstone course for the finance emphasis focusing on strategic issues such as capital budgeting, the cost of capital, capital structure, dividend policy, and debt and equity financing. Case studies are used to develop analytical skills and enhance student understanding of the practical application of financial theory. Prerequisites: BUS-320 or concurrent enrollment in BUS-371 Offered alternate years: 2019-2020

Students choosing to double major in economics and business administration may not earn both the financial economics emphasis in economics and the finance emphasis in business administration.

Administration Management Concentration

Degree Type Offered: Concentration

The administration management concentration provides students outside of business administration with skills in accounting and management that are essential to a broad variety of careers and graduate programs in business and government. Almost every organization needs people with the ability to use software to analyze data and manage budgets, inventory, human resources, expenses and tax liabilities. In addition, knowledge of organization management, public administration and the implications of public policies for private and public interests is essential to leadership roles in these organizations. Since computer information systems are also increasingly important, students might consider using their electives to learn skills in that area. The administration management concentration allows students to pursue a major that they are passionate about, while also equipping themselves with more general practical skills for securing employment. Students may have a concentration advisor from economics, business administration or political science.
 
Consists of 15 credits configured as follows:

BUS-201 Principles of Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for sole proprietorships and corporations, accounting records, processing accounting information and financial statement content.

BUS-202 Principles of Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for partnerships, time-value of money applications, cash flows, budgeting, cost determination, responsibility accounting, and decision-driven financial information. Prerequisite: BUS-201

BUS-300 Principles of Organization Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

General overview of the principles of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling human and other resources for the achievement of an organization's goals. Examines the impact and role of communication, motivation, group dynamics, and organization culture, conflict and change as the context for current management practices. Uses written and oral reports to develop student writing and speaking skills. Prerequisites: BUS-120, ENG-110 or permission of the instructor

-or-

PSCI-380 Public Administration

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examination of the most pressing domestic issues confronting American society in the 21st century and the institutions and legal regimes developed to administer public policy. Topics include health care, education, criminal justice, social welfare policies, immigration, environmental issues, organizational theory, bureaucratic management and budgeting. Emphasizes active learning with simulations, debates, and engagement with public policy and public administration professionals. Offered alternate years

And any two from the following list:

BUS-420 Human Resource Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Personnel administration from a managerial perspective, including recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and motivation, employee/management relations, and various legal and regulatory issues. Prerequisite: BUS-300

BUS-330 Principles of Information Systems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to information system theory and application with special emphasis on information systems design in the functional areas of management, marketing, accounting, and operations management. Prerequisites: BUS-202 and-300, MATH-140 Credit may not be received for both BUS-330 and CIS-250

-or-

CIS-250 Introduction to Information Systems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Offers a general approach to the use of Information Systems in management, education, and government. Topics include computer terminology, data communications, system design, computer ethics, human-to-computer interfaces, and computer based decision support systems. Credit may not be received for both BUS-330 and CIS-250. Prerequisite: CIS-103 or permission of instructor

CIS-350 Database Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course presents concepts and applications of database management systems. Topics include physical and logical data organization, various database models, query languages, design concerns, integrity and security, and management issues. MS Access will be used for assignments. Prerequisites: CIS-250 or BUS-330 or permission of the instructor

CSCI-240 Web API Programming Using Facebook

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

This course focuses on the JavaScript programming language. Students learn how to use JavaScript, a browser's DOM and BOM to dynamically manipulate web pages. JQuery and web application programming interfaces (APIs) for web services such as Facebook and Google Maps are also discussed. Prerequisite: CSCI-105 Alternate years: offered 2018-2019

ECON-330 Government & Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Discussion of the role of government and market forces in promoting economic efficiency, focusing on antitrust policy, economic regulation, and socio-economic engineering. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210

ES-456 Management Concepts in Health Care

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Concepts of administration such as devising policy and procedures, record-keeping, budgeting, facility design, risk management and productivity standards for healthcare professionals. (Cross-listed as at-456)

PSCI-215 Introduction to Public Policy

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A comprehensive introduction to the process of developing, implementing and evaluating public policy. Covers the policy process in both theoretical and practical terms including the structure of institutions, decisions made throughout the process, and consequences of decision-making or non-decision-making. Areas of public policy addressed include criminal justice policy, regulatory policy, and healthcare advocacy and policy. Corequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

PSCI-390 Public Policy

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examination of the development and implementation of public policy with an emphasis on understanding change in policy regimes over time and the variety of regulatory mechanisms. Students research public policy on a topic of their choosing such as agriculture, social welfare, health care or environment. Offered alternate years

The concentration is not available to economics majors pursuing the business track, business administration majors or business administration minors.

Courses

BUS-105 Exploring Sustainability in Organization

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Exploratory course in three dimensions of sustainable organizations: people, planet and profit. Emphasizes sustainability of an organization's social, environmental and economic impacts, exploring these both individually and altogether. Additional cost associated with travel.

BUS-110 Personal Finance

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

How to manage personal income and wealth through personal financial, tax, retirement and estate planning, personal budgeting, banking alternatives, consumer credit, insurance, home buying and investments.

BUS-115 History of Advertising

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

This course is a study of advertising, its roles in business, and its impacts on society, including such topics as the development of the middle class and the rise of mass consumption; lifestyle changes; changing gender roles in the family, workplace, and society as a whole; consumerism; government regulation of business; and ethical concerns about business practices. Focusing largely, but not exclusively, on advertising in the American experience, this course will explore advertising from multidisciplinary perspectives to produce a broad-based understanding of how advertising has had an impact on, and been impacted by, business, not-for-profit and public causes, societal values, politics, and other aspects of everyday life.

BUS-120 Survey of Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces a variety of business principles and practices as a foundation for students majoring in Business Administration and for non-business majors interested in acquiring basic understanding of the business world. Addresses aspects of leadership and personal assessment and development through a semester-long business plan project, helping students to assess their interest in and aptitude for various business disciplines.

BUS-200 Figuring Your Small Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Introduces the basic financial concepts and tools needed to run a business "by the numbers," focusing on using financial reports to analyze business activity, monitor financial performance, and budget for upcoming plans. Credit may not be received for both BUS 200 and BUS 201

BUS-201 Principles of Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for sole proprietorships and corporations, accounting records, processing accounting information and financial statement content.

BUS-202 Principles of Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Accounting for partnerships, time-value of money applications, cash flows, budgeting, cost determination, responsibility accounting, and decision-driven financial information. Prerequisite: BUS-201

BUS-205 Business Practicum

Credits: 1 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Skills-and-theory based class that helps students apply critical thinking to make a difference in their community and the world by developing projects that impact the lives of others. Students are given a chance to develop leadership, organizational, communication and teamwork skills, while also enhancing project management and creative skills. Work includes a minimum of three hours outside the class and one hour inside each week. Course may be repeated for a total of 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor

BUS-211 Principles of Finance

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

An introduction to corporate finance. It introduces how companies invest in real assets, raise funds to pay for investments, and how investments affect the value of firms. It provides an overview of capital markets, the role of financial institutions in the economy and how securities are traded and valued by investors. The course introduces ways to think analytically about financial issues that firms and individuals will likely encounter. Prerequisites: BUS-120 and MATH-140

BUS-212 Equine Farm and Stable Management

Credits: 4 Term Offered: Spring Only

Preventative health maintenance, facility management and basic sound business practices. Topics on horse selection, sanitation, routine veterinary practices, nutrition and supplements, equipment recognition and selection, facilities design, hoof care and furriery, exercise physiology, liability issues and insurance selection. Lecture and laboratory times required.

BUS-300 Principles of Organization Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

General overview of the principles of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling human and other resources for the achievement of an organization's goals. Examines the impact and role of communication, motivation, group dynamics, and organization culture, conflict and change as the context for current management practices. Uses written and oral reports to develop student writing and speaking skills. Prerequisites: BUS-120, ENG-110 or permission of the instructor

BUS-305X International Business and Entrepreneurship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Examines the importance of fostering entrepreneurship as the key to economic, social, and intellectual development in a myriad of cultural settings and economic/political systems around the globe. This course will include a field study approach with visits to embassies and the World Bank on a one week trip to Washington, D.C. Prerequisites: COMM-100 and two courses from ECON-200, ECON-210, PSY-101 and SOC-101 FILA general education: experiential learning

BUS-310 Principles of Marketing

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Explores the principles and practices of how goods, services, and ideas are developed and distributed in order to satisfy individual and organization needs, wants and objectives. Emphasis is placed on the micro-marketing perspectives including product, price, promotion and place. Prerequisites: BUS-120 and COMM-100, or permission of instructor; ECON-210 recommended but not required

BUS-315 Marketing Research

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explores the scope of marketing research and its role in effective decision making. Students investigate, assess and conduct various types of quantitative and qualitative research, from surveys to focus groups. Prerequisites: MATH-140, BUS-310, and junior or senior standing

BUS-330 Principles of Information Systems

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduction to information system theory and application with special emphasis on information systems design in the functional areas of management, marketing, accounting, and operations management. Prerequisites: BUS-202 and-300, MATH-140 Credit may not be received for both BUS-330 and CIS-250

BUS-340 Management Science

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces essential quantitative techniques and their use in business decision-making, including decision analysis, forecasting, linear programming, project scheduling, inventory cost minimization, and queuing analysis. Emphasis on the practical application of these techniques to production and operations management and other business problems. Prerequisites: BUS-300 and MATH-140 or permission of instructor

BUS-345 Supply Chain Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Examines supply chain management processes as they apply to both service and manufacturing organizations, with special consideration given to identifying ways in which the strategic use of supply chain management can create competitive advantages for firms. Topics covered include logistics, inventory management, sales and operations planning, sourcing and purchasing processes, materials planning, TQM, JIT, lean processes, and technology-enhanced supply chain processes. Requires travel throughout the Shenandoah Valley to participate in plant tours and other field experiences. Additional cost associated with travel. Prerequisites: BUS-330 and BUS-340, and junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor

BUS-350 Business Law

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

The U.S. legal and regulatory environment, including the sources of law; the resolution of disputes; the Uniform Commercial Code; the laws of torts, contracts, agency, partnerships, corporations, employment, and equal opportunity; and laws regulating competition. Prerequisite: BUS-120, ENG-110, and junior or senior standing

BUS-358 Equine Business Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Examination of basic business practices including business plan development, record-keeping, professional ethics, liability, insurance, resource management, evaluating and selecting staff, competitive pricing, identifying regional demographics, advertising, grant design and community development, and building a client base.

BUS-360 Venture Creation

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

This course is a dynamic learning and business development experience focused on the professional development of young entrepreneurs. Students will develop their own creative ideas, and use the rigorous lean startup protocol to design a specific business model to launch and scale (theoretically for class purposes only, or in the real world). Emphasis is placed on the lean startup and customer development principles (e.g. innovative business models, scientific approach, hypothesis testing, rapid iteration, minimum viable product, problem-solution fit, customer discovery process and agile development). Prerequisites: BUS-120 or permission of instructor; junior standing recommended

BUS-365X Cross-Cultural Issues in Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

Explores cultural differences in business practices. Combines international travel and experiential learning with classroom discussion and reflection to enrich students' educational experience. The travel portion of the course provides opportunities for direct communication with business leaders in the selected location, facility tours, and attending business lectures at local universities. Travel destinations include Europe, South America, Japan and China. On campus, students actively reflect on cross-cultural similarities and differences in the conduct of business, cross-cultural business issues, and ways to become more sensitive to the complexities, relationships, and dialogues among different cultures. May be taken more than once provided a different location is selected each time. Prerequisites: ENG-110 and permission of instructor FILA general education: experiential learning

BUS-370 Forensic and Investigative Accounting

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to the challenging field of forensic and investigative accounting. Topics include introduction to forensic and investigative accounting, forensic accounting education, institutions, and specialties, fraudulent financial reporting, detecting fraud in financial reporting, employee fraud, methods of reconstructing income, money laundering, litigation services provided by accountants, proper evidence management, computing economic damages, computer forensics, profiling the cybercriminal, cybercrime management, cybercrime loss valuations, and business valuations. Prerequisites: BUS-202 Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

BUS-371 Intermediate Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A two-course examination of financial accounting issues. BUS 371 focuses on accounting theory, FASB's conceptual framework, GAAP & IFRS presentations for financial statements. Prerequisite: BUS-202

BUS-372 Intermediate Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A two-course examination of financial accounting issues. BUS 372 examines time-value of money applications, liabilities, leases, pensions and post-retirement obligations, stockholders' equity, earnings per share, accounting changes, correcting accounting errors, and comprehensive statements of cash flows. Prerequisite: BUS-371

BUS-381 Federal Tax Accounting I

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to the federal tax structure, emphasizing accounting for personal income taxes, including preparation of individual income tax returns. Highlights working with tax law, determining personal and dependency exemptions, gross income, deductions, losses, depreciation, and tax credits. Prerequisite: BUS-202 Offered alternate years: offered 2018-2019

BUS-382 Federal Tax Accounting II

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Emphasizes accounting for preparing corporate, partnership, gift, estate, and trust returns. Focuses on corporate operating rules, organization, capital structure, distributions, S Corporation limitations, exempt entities, and tax administration and practice. Prerequisites: BUS-202 Offered alternate years: 2019-2020

BUS-385 Cost Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Preparation and utilization of financial information for internal management purposes with emphasis placed on cost behavior, cost determination, and the development of information for planning and control purposes. Prerequisites: BUS-202 and MATH-140 Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

BUS-400 Advanced Accounting

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Accounting for partnerships, business combinations, state and local governments, private not-for-profit organizations and other selected topics. Prerequisites: BUS-372 or permission of instructor Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

BUS-405 Auditing

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theory and practice of auditing: the techniques, standards, legal environment, and ethics of the public accounting profession. Emphasis is placed on the study of internal controls, and compliance and substantive tests of functional cycles within the firm, audit reports, accounting and review services, and other attestation services. Prerequisite: BUS-372

BUS-412W Professional Selling

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Designed to develop student interaction and business skills with strategies relating to the personal selling side of marketing. Emphasis is placed on business-to-business and consumer selling strategies, as these skills are also applicable to retail selling and may be beneficial in enhancing skills necessary for selling ideas within the business, workplace, community at large or society in general. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, ENG-110, BUS-300, BUS-310, or permission of instructor FILA general education: writing intensive

BUS-414W Consumer Behavior

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A study of purchasing patterns and habits of consumers (individual and business) from both societal and psychological sides; increases student understanding of how businesses develop marketing plans to appeal to recognized consumer needs, wants and characteristics. Emphasis is placed on observations in the retail environment including cultural, societal and personal preferences. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, ENG-110, BUS-300, BUS-310, or permission of instructor FILA general education: writing intensive

BUS-416W Advertising

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

A study of the wide varieties of non-personal ways an organization communicates with customers and other stakeholder groups. Primary emphasis is placed on traditional paid media. Internet and social media options are also reviewed, along with alternative advertising vehicles such as brochures, direct mail and point-of-sale contacts. Course content includes a review of the planning, design and production processes, as well as sample communications as an essential part of the learning process. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, ENG-110, BUS-300, BUS-310, or permission of instructor FILA general education: writing intensive

BUS-420 Human Resource Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Personnel administration from a managerial perspective, including recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and motivation, employee/management relations, and various legal and regulatory issues. Prerequisite: BUS-300

BUS-422X Entrepreneurship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Emphasizes general principles of entrepreneurship and small business management for students interested in developing their own business. Provides practical experience through service learning, written and oral reports. Prerequisites: COMM-100 and BUS-200 or BUS-202, BUS-300, BUS-310, and junior or senior standing; BUS-315 is recommended to be taken prior to or concurrently with the course FILA general education: experiential learning Additional costs associated with travel.

BUS-430 Investments

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to security selection and portfolio management in global financial markets, including the theoretical and practical aspects of asset allocation and stock and bond valuation. Prerequisite: BUS-202 or permission of the instructor Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

BUS-448 Financial Statement Analysis and Equity Valuation

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Capstone course for the finance emphasis focusing on strategic issues such as capital budgeting, the cost of capital, capital structure, dividend policy, and debt and equity financing. Case studies are used to develop analytical skills and enhance student understanding of the practical application of financial theory. Prerequisites: BUS-320 or concurrent enrollment in BUS-371 Offered alternate years: 2019-2020

BUS-468 Contemporary Issues in Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

A senior seminar for the marketing, organization management and international emphases designed to help students integrate knowledge from general education, major and emphasis courses with current professional issues. Focus placed on issues such as international marketing, employee relations and other cross-cultural concerns; effects of cross-country financial, legal political, media and transportation variations; interpersonal vs. virtual work environments; e-commerce; professional ethics; adapting and strengthening corporate culture in dynamic environments; and integrating functional and geographic business strategies. Prerequisites: senior standing in the business administration major or permission of instructor

BUS-478X Strategic Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

A seminar-style capstone course for Business Administration majors that integrates the functional areas of business (accounting, finance, management, and marketing) through analysis, forecasting, and developing solutions to complex business scenarios. The course uses a combination of readings, discussion, case studies, and a team-based computer simulation to focus on managing strategically and responsibly. Prerequisites: FILA-150 or FILA-350, COMM-100, BUS-300, BUS-310, BUS-320, BUS-330, BUS-340 or BUS-385, BUS-350, and senior standing; or permission of instructor FILA general education: experiential learning

BUS-480 Internship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Provides an opportunity for a student to gain field experience in an area related to the student's concentration or career goals. Supervision of an intern is provided by an appropriate faculty member and by a staff member of the agency or business in which the student is an intern. A student who wishes to engage in an internship must consult with the appropriate faculty member at least eight weeks in advance of the start of the term in which the internship is to be completed. A description of the internship, signed by the student and the faculty sponsor, must be filed with the director of internships by the first day of the semester prior to the start of the internship. Approval of each application for an internship is made by the director of internships based upon policies and guidelines as approved by the Council on Education and the faculty. To be considered for an internship, a student must have junior or senior status and at least a 2.00 grade point average. Internships are graded on an S or U basis. A student may enroll in an internship program for 3 credits per semester, and internship credit may be earned in subsequent semesters subject to the limitations that no more than two internships may be pursued in any one agency or business and a maximum of 9 credits in internships may be applied toward graduation.

BUS-490 Independent Study

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for not more than three independent studies or research projects.

BUS-491 Research

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for not more than three independent studies or research projects.

BUS-499 Honors Project

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

An honors project is one in which a student researches a subject, by examination of relevant literature or by experimentation or both; the student reports the results in an accurately documented and well-written paper or appropriate representation of the work. Whenever the study deals with the subject of an established course, the student is expected to go well beyond the usual work of the course in research and in assimilation of the results as revealed in the report. Juniors and seniors with a cumulative grade point average of 3.40 or above may register for an honors project. One desiring to pursue an honors project must submit a written description of his or her proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. Upon the completion of the Honors Project, the student must present an oral defense of his or her project. The final grade must include a satisfactory performance on the oral defense, assessed by a three-faculty member team. The Project Advisor will authorize the make-up of the oral defense team and will assign the final grade on the project. The honors project title will be noted on the student's transcript. It is the student's responsibility to provide a copy of the written paper or appropriate representation of the work to the library in compliance with specifications approved by the Council on Education. The library director arranges for binding and storage.

ECON-200 Principles of Macroeconomics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Introduces scarcity, opportunity cost, and supply and demand analysis, with special emphasis on aggregate economic growth, unemployment, inflation, and fiscal and monetary policies. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

ECON-210 Principles of Microeconomics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall and Spring

Analysis of individual choice and market behavior, with special emphasis on price and output relationships and the economics of the firm. Prerequisite: FILA-150 or FILA-350 FILA general education: social sciences

ECON-300 Money & Banking

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Focuses on the financial system, determinants of interest rates, structure and regulation of the banking system, the Federal Reserve System, and monetary policy and it's impact on aggregate economic activity and inflation. Prerequisite: ECON-200

ECON-305 Contemporary Economic Issues

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Discussion of contemporary economic issues from conservative, liberal, and radical perspectives. Topics include both macroeconomic and microeconomic issues. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

ECON-310 U.S. Economics & Business History

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Traces the growth and development of the U.S. economy and economic institutions from the Colonial era to the present with special emphasis on key institutions and events, such as slavery, industrialization, the rise of big business and the Great Depression. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 FILA general education: global dynamics

ECON-320 Labor Economics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Analysis of labor market supply and demand, wages and salaries, collective bargaining, discrimination, and macroeconomic implications of labor market issues. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

ECON-327 Economics and the Environment

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Examines the economic causes and consequences of environmental problems and evaluates market-based and nonmarket solutions for them, with special emphasis on pollution, overpopulation, resource depletion and sustainability. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 Offered alternate years

ECON-330 Government & Business

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Discussion of the role of government and market forces in promoting economic efficiency, focusing on antitrust policy, economic regulation, and socio-economic engineering. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210

ECON-400 Intermediate Macroeconomics Theory

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Analyzes economic growth, business cycles, and the impact of economic institutions and policies on aggregate economic performance and living standards. Prerequisite: ECON-200

ECON-410 Intermediate Microeconomics Theory

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theoretical and applied development of consumer choice, firm behavior, price and income determination, market behavior, and government policy. Prerequisite: ECON-210

ECON-420 Development of Economic Thought

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Traces the evolution of economic thought from ancient times to the present with special emphasis on Adam Smith, the classical school, socialism, Marx, marginalism, the neoclassical school, Keynes and Friedman. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 FILA general education: philosophy or religion Offered alternate years: 2019-2020

ECON-440 International Economics

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Theory of international economic interrelationships, including trade, finance, and monetary policies and institutions. Prerequisite: ECON-200 or ECON-210 FILA general education: global dynamics

ECON-460 Senior Seminar

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Capstone course for majors in Economics. Investigates selected economic issues, policies, and problems, and introduces regression methods used to test economic hypotheses. Students conduct quantitative research, collect data, formulate and test hypotheses, and present their results. Prerequisites: ECON-400 and ECON-410 and senior standing, or permission of instructor

ECON-480 Internship

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Provides an opportunity for a student to gain field experience in an area related to the student's concentration or career goals. Supervision of an intern is provided by an appropriate faculty member and by a staff member of the agency or business in which the student is an intern. A student who wishes to engage in an internship must consult with the appropriate faculty member at least eight weeks in advance of the start of the term in which the internship is to be completed. A description of the internship, signed by the student and the faculty sponsor, must be filed with the director of internships by the first day of the semester prior to the start of the internship. Approval of each application for an internship is made by the director of internships based upon policies and guidelines as approved by the Council on Education and the faculty. To be considered for an internship, a student must have junior or senior status and at least a 2.00 grade point average. Internships are graded on an S or U basis. A student may enroll in an internship program for 3 credits per semester, and internship credit may be earned in subsequent semesters subject to the limitations that no more than two internships may be pursued in any one agency or business and a maximum of 9 credits in internships may be applied toward graduation.

ECON-490 Independent Study

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for not more than three independent studies or research projects.

ECON-491 Research

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

Upon approval of the department and the division head, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 2.20 or better may engage in an independent study or research project. One desiring to pursue independent study or research must submit a written description of the proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. At the end of the semester, the supervising professor files with the registrar a grade for the student and a description of the work accomplished. Credit may be received for not more than three independent studies or research projects.

ECON-499 Honors Project

Credits: 3 Term Offered: All Terms

An honors project is one in which a student researches a subject, by examination of relevant literature or by experimentation or both; the student reports the results in an accurately documented and well-written paper or appropriate representation of the work. Whenever the study deals with the subject of an established course, the student is expected to go well beyond the usual work of the course in research and in assimilation of the results as revealed in the report. Juniors and seniors with a cumulative grade point average of 3.40 or above may register for an honors project. One desiring to pursue an honors project must submit a written description of his or her proposed work to the chair of the appropriate department and to the appropriate division head prior to the last day of the drop and add period for the semester in which the study is to be conducted. Upon the completion of the Honors Project, the student must present an oral defense of his or her project. The final grade must include a satisfactory performance on the oral defense, assessed by a three-faculty member team. The Project Advisor will authorize the make-up of the oral defense team and will assign the final grade on the project. The honors project title will be noted on the student's transcript. It is the student's responsibility to provide a copy of the written paper or appropriate representation of the work to the library in compliance with specifications approved by the Council on Education. The library director arranges for binding and storage.

EQU-111 Introduction to Equine Science

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Survey of history, breeds, characteristics, colors, disciplines, health care, facilities, equipment, anatomy, reproduction, nutrition, management and careers in equine science and industry.

EQU-211 Equine Development & Behavior

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

History of the horse, appreciation of the evolutionary development of the horse, including mental and physical capabilities, and the instincts which guide the horse to self-preservation.

EQU-220 Theories Riding

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Explanation of theories involved in the development of the riding skills necessary to become successful riders in selected disciplines. Focus on hunter seat equitation but will also identify the differences in riding styles and techniques among disciplines. Identification of the common riding faults and how those faults affect the horses' way of moving. Offered alternate years

EQU-306 Equine Lameness and Disease

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Introduction to common lameness and diseases of the horse. Differentiate between true emergencies and those situations which can be handled by the trained layperson, working knowledge of health requirements for equines, ability to design a plan for wellness and emphasis on effective communication with veterinary practitioners. Offered alternate years: 2019-2020

EQU-329 Practicum

Credits: 2 Term Offered: All Terms

Practicum experience consistent with the career objectives of the student. One hundred hours of competency based work in an environment relevant to the student's chosen discipline.

EQU-331 Conformation: Form and Function

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Demonstration of the relationship between the horse's conformation and its function or performance including methods of evaluation, confirmation in relation of usability, performance requirements of various breeds, and the methods of judging. Two lecture hours and two hours of practical application per week. Prerequisites: EQU-111 Offered alternate years: 2019-2020

EQU-350X International Equine Breeding, Training and Management

Credits: 3 Term Offered: May Term

This course is designed to enhance students' understanding of global equine industry management, training, and breeding facilities. Students will have an opportunity to study and evaluate equine selection of breeding stock and young prospects internationally. This course will travel to a selection of international breeding facilities located in the UK and Europe. In addition, the class will allow students to make equine industry contacts. The focus will be on comparison of international horses to American bred horses, concentrating on breeding stock and training stock selection; as well as how each of those practices are managed. Prerequisites: ENG-110, EQU-111 and EQU-211, or permission of instructor FILA general education: experiential learning

EQU-364 Judging and Course Design

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Fall Only

Introduction to the process and systems involved in judging hunters, jumpers and hunter seat equitation including how to set up a judge's card, how to identify style strengths and error, the symbols used to record a performance on the card, and how to arrive at an order of award. Additionally, exploration of the design and building of hunter and jumper courses with special emphasis on the suitability of the design to skill level of competitors and level of horses involved. Offered alternate years: 2018-2019

EQU-401 Training & Schooling

Credits: 3 Term Offered: Spring Only

Selection of suitable hunter/jumper prospects as well as teaching basic methods used in breaking horses, selecting facilities, equipment, over fences gymnastics, educating young or problem horses, preparation for horse shows, and the identification of necessary characteristics, personality traits and abilities to become a successful trainer in the horse world of today. Requires a two-hour lecture and two hours of practical application per week. Prerequisites: ES-185